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Transcutaneous Immunization Studies in Mice Using Diphtheria Toxoid-Loaded Vesicle Formulations and a Microneedle Array

Transcutaneous Immunization Studies in Mice Using Diphtheria Toxoid-Loaded Vesicle Formulations and a Microneedle Array,10.1007/s11095-010-0093-y,Phar

Transcutaneous Immunization Studies in Mice Using Diphtheria Toxoid-Loaded Vesicle Formulations and a Microneedle Array   (Citations: 4)
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Purpose  To determine the immunogenicity of diphtheria toxoid (DT) formulated in two types of vesicles following transcutaneous immunization (TCI) of mice onto microneedle array-treated skin. Methods  DT-containing cationic liposomes or anionic surfactant-based vesicles were prepared by extrusion and sonication. The physicochemical properties were characterized in terms of size, ζ-potential, vesicle elasticity and antigen association. TCI was performed by applying formulations onto intact or microneedle array-pretreated mice skin, using cholera toxin as an adjuvant. Subcutaneous and intradermal immunizations were as control. Immune responses were evaluated by IgG and neutralizing antibody titers, and the immune-stimulatory properties were assessed using cultured dendritic cells. Results  Stable DT-containing cationic liposomes (∼150 nm) and anionic vesicles (∼100 nm) were obtained. Incorporation of Span 80 increased liposome elasticity. About 90% and 77% DT was associated with liposomes and vesicles, respectively. TCI of all formulations resulted in substantial antibody titers only if microneedle pretreatment was applied. Co-administration of cholera toxin further augmented the immune responses of TCI. However, vesicle formulations didn’t enhance the immunogenicity on either intact or microneedle-treated skin and showed low stimulatory activity on dendritic cells. Conclusions  Microneedle pretreatment and cholera toxin, but not antigen association to vesicles, enhances the immunogenicity of topically applied DT.
Journal: Pharmaceutical Research - PHARMACEUT RES , vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 145-158, 2011
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