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Regulation of brain polyunsaturated fatty acid uptake and turnover

Regulation of brain polyunsaturated fatty acid uptake and turnover,10.1016/j.plefa.2008.09.003,Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids,C

Regulation of brain polyunsaturated fatty acid uptake and turnover   (Citations: 13)
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The brain is particularly enriched in glycerophospholipids with either arachidonic or docosahexaenoic acid esterified in the stereospecifically numbered-2 position. In this paper, we review how combining a kinetic approach to study the uptake and turnover of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids within brain phospholipids of unanesthetized rats, along with chronic administration of antimanic drugs (lithium, valproate and carbamazepine), have advanced our understanding of how polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) enter the brain, and the mechanisms that regulate their turnover within brain phospholipids. The incorporation rates of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid from the plasma unesterified pool into brain phospholipids closely approximate independent measures of their consumption rates by the brain, suggesting this is quantitatively the major pool for uptake of these PUFA. Antimanic drugs (lithium and carbamazepine) that downregulate the activity of the calcium-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) transcription factor AP-2, and in turn the expression and activity of cPLA2, lead to a selective downregulation in brain arachidonic acid turnover. Furthermore, targeting arachidonoyl-CoA formation via ordered, non-competitive inhibition of an acyl-CoA synthetase with valproate also selectively decreases brain arachidonic acid turnover. Drugs that increase brain cPLA2 activity (N-methyl-d-aspartic acid and fluoxetine) are correlated with increased turnover of arachidonic acid in brain phospholipids. Altered PUFA metabolism has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including bipolar disorder and Alzheimer's disease. Identifying the enzymes that regulated brain PUFA metabolism could lead to new therapeutic approaches for these disorders.
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