Keywords (1)

Academic
Publications
Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary extracts linked to their polyphenol composition

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary extracts linked to their polyphenol composition,10.1080/10715760500473834,Free Radical Research,S

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary extracts linked to their polyphenol composition   (Citations: 39)
BibTex | RIS | RefWorks Download
Journal: Free Radical Research - FREE RADICAL RES , vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 223-231, 2006
Cumulative Annual
View Publication
The following links allow you to view full publications. These links are maintained by other sources not affiliated with Microsoft Academic Search.
    • ...Likewise, Moreno et al. [9] when investigating the total phenolic content in different extracts of rosemary reported a comparable ratio of phenolic levels obtained from acetone and water extracts, although values were expressed as g GAE per 100 g dry extract (19 ± 8 and 3 ± 2, respectively)...

    Gema Nietoet al. Antioxidant activity of rosemary and thyme by-products and synergism w...

    • ...RA has widely reported biological activities in mammals and mammalian cells including antioxidant [1], anti-inflammatory [2], antitumor [3,4], immunomodulatory [5], antiviral [4] and antibacterial [6]...

    Wendy Pearsonet al. Protection against LPS-induced cartilage inflammation and degradation ...

    • ... Gemini and its 19-nor derivative 19-nor-Gemini (fig. 1), in WEHI cell culture. Cells were grown in the presence of increasing concentrations of either compound for 96 h followed by measurement of a general myeloid differentiation marker (superoxide production) and cell proliferation. As shown in figure 2a, b, the order of potencies was: 19-nor-Gemini > Gemini > 1,25D3 for both the induction of differentiation (EC50 = 0.059 ± 0.011, 0.275 ± 0.093 and 0.652 ± 0.085 nM, respectively) and cell growth inhibition (IC50 = 0.072 ± 0.018, 0.165 ± 0.061 and 0.895 ± 0.144 nM, respectively). No significant decrease in cell viability compared to vehicle-treated control cells (≥95% viable cells) was observed even at the highest concentrations of deltanoids used (data not shown).
      1Fig. 1. Structures of the rosemary polyphenol, carnosic acid and deltanoids used in this study. Carnosic acid, the polyphenolic diterpene with antioxidant properties derived from the plant R. officinalis L. (rosemary). 1,25D3 = Parent vitamin D compound, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; Gemini (Ro27-2310) = the vitamin D analogue which contains two side chains, combining a C-20-normal with a C-20-epi side chain [1,25-dihydroxy-21-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-cholecalciferol]; 19-nor Gemini (Ro27-5646) = its derivative with deletion of C-19 [1,25-dihydroxy-21(3-hydroxy-3-methyl-butyl)-19-nor-cholecalciferol].F01
      2Fig. 2. 19-nor-Gemini is a more potent antiproliferative and differentiation agent than 1,25D3 or Ro27-2310, with lower calcemic activity. a, b WEHI cells (5 × 103/ml) were incubated with 1,25D3 (D3), Gemini or 19-nor-Gemini (19-nor) for 96 h. Means ± SE of at least three independent experiments performed in duplicate. a Viable cell counts. The data are expressed as percent of cell numbers in control cultures incubated with vehicle alone (0.1% ethanol). The average control cell number at 96 h was 624,000 ± 34,000 cells/ml. b TPA (2 μM)-stimulated nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction (myeloid differentiation marker). The percentage of cells containing black formazan deposits was evaluated by counting 200 cells. c, d Effects of deltanoids on serum calcium and animal weight gain. Healthy Balb/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1,25D3, Gemini, 19-nor (all at 0.1 μg) or vehicle (0.1% ethanol), 3 times per week. c Serum calcium levels were measured weekly. d Mice from the experiment shown in c were weighed 3 times per week. Means ± SE of one experiment performed in groups of 10 animals.F02
      Preparatory to the in vivo testing, we established in a pilot experiment that the maximal tolerated dose for intraperitoneal 19-nor-Gemini in healthy mice was 0.1 μg/mouse, i.e. approximately 5 μg/kg (data not shown). To directly compare the calcemic effects of Gemini, 19-nor-Gemini and 1,25D3, four groups of mice were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle (control) or deltanoids at an equal dose of 0.1 μg/mouse, for 4 weeks. As shown in figure 2c, mice that received 19-nor-Gemini had borderline serum calcium levels which did not significantly exceed the normal values for Balb/c mice (8.5–10.5 mg/dl). Furthermore, the body weight gain of the 19-nor-Gemini-injected animals was not significantly different from that of the control group (fig. 2d). In contrast, animals treated with 0.1 μg 1,25D3 showed severe hypercalcemia (fig. 2c) and dramatic weight loss (fig. 2d), and were sacrificed during week 3 due to their moribund state. Gemini demonstrated intermediate toxicity (fig. 2c, d). On the basis of the above data, 19-nor-Gemini was chosen for the further in vitro and in vivo experiments as the most effective and less toxic of the three tested deltanoids.19-nor-Gemini and Rosemary Preparations Cooperate in the Induction of Differentiation and Inhibition of Proliferation in WEHI CellsThe ability of 19-nor-Gemini to cooperate with rosemary preparations in the differentiation of WEHI cells was examined by the expression of specific monocyte/macrophage differentiation markers (MSE and F4/80). 1,25D3 was used as the positive control. Control cells and those treated with single agents, such as approximately isoeffective concentrations of 1,25D3 and 19-nor-Gemini (0.5 and 0.05 nM, respectively; fig. 2a, b) and 10 μM carnosic acid or an equivalent concentration of rosemary extract, exhibited low MSE levels (fig. 3a). However, the combined treatments resulted in a marked synergistic increase in MSE expression. F4/80 marker levels in control WEHI cells were slightly above 30% and were further elevated by single agents, whereas the combinations produced nearly additive effects (fig. 3b). The combined treatments did not produce significant cytotoxicity (cells retained 92 ± 5% viability under all experimental conditions; data not shown). However, at least an additive substantial growth-inhibitory effect was observed (fig. 3c). Rosemary extract, either alone or in combination with deltanoids, was slightly more potent than carnosic acid in both cell differentiation and growth assays (fig. 3). It is possible that minor components of rosemary extract, e.g. carnosol, can contribute to the biological effects of the extract along with carnosic acid. Importantly, the combinations of deltanoids at low concentrations with rosemary agents were almost as effective as much higher doses of 19-nor-Gemini (5 nM) or 1,25D3 (10 nM) alone (fig. 3) which exhibited maximal effects in dose-response tests (fig. 2a, b).
      3Fig. 3. Carnosic acid (CA) and rosemary extract (RE) cooperate with 1,25D3 (D3) and 19-nor-Gemini (19-nor) in the induction of differentiation (a, b) and inhibition of proliferation (c) in WEHI cells. Cells (5 × 103/ml) were incubated with the indicated compounds for 96 h. Differentiation was assessed by MSE (a) and F4/80 (b) assays. c Viable cell counts. Means ± SE of four to seven independent experiments performed in duplicate. Synergistic effects of the deltanoid-carnosic acid and deltanoid-rosemary extract combinations on MSE expression were statistically significant (* p < 0.001).F03
      Antioxidant Effects of Rosemary-Derived Agents and Deltanoids in WEHI CellsRosemary extract and purified polyphenols demonstrate strong antioxidant effects in various biologic systems [...

    Ayelet Shabtayet al. Synergistic Antileukemic Activity of Carnosic Acid-Rich Rosemary Extra...

    • ...Rosemary oil is known to possess marked antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties; moreover, its exerts significant antioxidant activities depending on the terpenes [38-40]...

    Arndt Büssinget al. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative re...

    • ...It has many pharmacological actions such as antioxidation, anti-inflammatory (24), antiplatelet (17), and anti-tumor properties (25, 31)...

    Xiao-Ning Yuet al. Reversion of P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Multidrug Resistance in Human Leu...

Sort by: