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Retention of the virus-derived sequences in the nuclear genome of grapevine as a potential pathway to virus resistance

Retention of the virus-derived sequences in the nuclear genome of grapevine as a potential pathway to virus resistance,10.1186/1745-6150-4-21,Biology

Retention of the virus-derived sequences in the nuclear genome of grapevine as a potential pathway to virus resistance   (Citations: 11)
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BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed a wide-spread occurence of the partial and complete genomes of the reverse-transcribing pararetroviruses in the nuclear genomes of herbaceous plants. Although the absence of the virus-encoded integrases attests to the random and incidental incorporation of the viral sequences, their presence could have functional implications for the virus-host interactions. HYPOTHESIS: Analyses of two nuclear genomes of grapevine revealed multiple events of horizontal gene transfer from pararetroviruses. The ~200–800 bp inserts that corresponded to partial ORFs encoding reverse transcriptase apparently derived from unknown or extinct caulimoviruses and tungroviruses, were found in 11 grapevine chromosomes. In contrast to the previous reports, no reliable cases of the inserts derived from the positive-strand RNA viruses were found. Because grapevine is known to be infected by the diverse positive-strand RNA viruses, but not pararetroviruses, we hypothesize that pararetroviral inserts have conferred host resistance to these viruses. Furthermore, we propose that such resistance involves RNA interference-related mechanisms acting via small RNA-mediated methylation of pararetroviral DNAs and/or via degradation of the viral mRNAs. CONCLUSION: The pararetroviral sequences in plant genomes may be maintained due to the benefits of virus resistance to this class of viruses conferred by their presence. Such resistance could be particularly significant for the woody plants that must withstand years- to centuries-long virus assault. Experimental research into the RNA interference pathways involving the integrated pararetroviral inserts is required to test this hypothesis. REVIEWERS: This article was reviewed by Arcady R. Mushegian, I. King Jordan, and Eugene V. Koonin.
Journal: Biology Direct - BIOL DIRECT , vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 21-11, 2009
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    • ...into viral genomes. The virus to host direction involves endogenization of viral genes. Fossil sequences of viral origin, mostly from retroviruses, have been detected in many animal genomes. However, retrovirus sequences have not been identified in plants; instead, reverse-transcribing DNA viruses (pararetroviruses) have been identified. Although pararetroviral sequences have been found in some plant nuclear genomes ...

    Sotaro Chibaet al. Widespread Endogenization of Genome Sequences of Non-Retroviral RNA Vi...

    • ...Integration-based immunity might be even more widespread: recent reports reveal multiple inserts of pararetrovirus sequences in a genome of grapevine, a plant that appears to be resistant to active viruses of this group [20] and inserts of short fragments of both RNA and DNA viral genomes in insects and crustaceans [21]...

    Eugene V Koonin. Taming of the shrewd: novel eukaryotic genes from RNA viruses

    • ...The initial claims of NIRVs in grape (Vitus) genomes also failed the direct tests of integration [22]...

    Derek J Tayloret al. The evolution of novel fungal genes from non-retroviral RNA viruses

    • ...Notably, recent findings in both plants and arthropods, although preliminary, indicate that these eukaryotes integrate virus-specific DNA into their genomes and might employ these integrated sequences to produce siRNAs that confer immunity to cognate viruses [49,50]...
    • ...Although the existence of other bona fide Lamarckian systems, beyond the CASS and the piRNA, is imaginable and even likely, as suggested, for instance, by the discovery of virus-specific sequences, potentially conferring resistance to the cognate viruses, in plant and animal genomes [49,50] these mechanisms hardly constitute the main-Biology Direct 2009, 4:42 http://www.biology-direct.com/content/4/1/42...

    Eugene V Kooninet al. Is evolution Darwinian or/and Lamarckian?

    • ...The missing references appear here in their respective order [2-8]...

    Timothy W Flegelet al. Hypothesis for heritable, anti-viral immunity in crustaceans and insec...

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