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The effects of space weathering on Apollo 17 mare soils: Petrographic and chemical characterization

The effects of space weathering on Apollo 17 mare soils: Petrographic and chemical characterization,10.1111/j.1945-5100.2001.tb01871.x,Meteoritics & P

The effects of space weathering on Apollo 17 mare soils: Petrographic and chemical characterization   (Citations: 27)
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The lunar soil characterization consortium, a group of lunar-sample and remote-sensing scientists, has undertaken the extensive task of characterization of the finest fractions of lunar soils, with respect to their mineralogical and chemical makeup. These compositional data form the basis for integration and modeling with the reflectance spectra of these same soil fractions. This endeavor is aimed at deciphering the effects of space weathering of soils on airless bodies with quantification of the links between remotely sensed reflectance spectra and composition. A beneficial byproduct is an understanding of the complexities involved in the formation of lunar soil. Several significant findings have been documented in the study of the <45 lm size fractions of selected Apollo 17 mare soils. As grain size decreases, the abundance of agglutinitic glass increases, as does the plagioclase, whereas the other minerals decrease. The composition of the agglutinitic glass is relatively constant for all size fractions, being more feldspathic than any of the bulk compositions; notably, TiO2 is substantially depleted in the agglutinitic glass. However, as grain size decreases, the bulk composition of each size fraction continuously changes, becoming more Al-rich and Fe-poor, and approaches the composition of the agglutinitic glasses. Between the smallest grain sizes (10-20 and 2´), whereas the abundance of agglutinitic glass increases by only 10-15%. This is evidence for a large contribution from surface-correlated nanophase Fe0 to the IS/FeO values, particularly in the <10 lm size fraction. The surface nanophase Fe0 is present largely as vapor-deposited patinas on the surfaces of almost every particle of the mature soils, and to a lesser degree for the immature soils (Keller et al., 1999a). It is reasoned that the vapor-deposited patinas may have far greater effects upon reflectance spectra of mare soils than the agglutinitic Fe0.
Journal: Meteoritics & Planetary Science - METEORIT PLANETARY SCI , vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 285-299, 2001
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    • ...3.1. Validation Data [18] The gold standard, the only standard, against which to test models that derive lunar mineralogy from spectra is the LSCC data set [Higgins et al., 1996; Taylor et al., 1996; Noble et al., 2001; Taylor et al., 2001a, 2001b; Pieters and Hiroi, 2004]...

    J. T. S. Cahillet al. Radiative transfer modeling of near-infrared reflectance of lunar high...

    • ...[3] Using the Apollo and Luna lunar soils to document the products of space weathering, we have studied a selected suite of the Apollo 14 and 16 highland soils (Table 1). This study is a continuation to our characterization of the mineralogical and glassy components of the fine fractions of lunar mare soils [e.g., Taylor et al., 2001a, 2001b; Pieters et al., 2000, 2001], especially the complicated agglutinitic glass [Basuet al., 1996;Basu ...
    • ...The actual sample handling logistics and allocations are presented in Figure 1 of Taylor et al. [2001a]...
    • ...2.4. Difficulties in Modal Analyses of Minerals and Glasses in Highland Soils [9] The first studies of the LSCC were performed with mare soils [Taylor et al., 2001a, 2001b], and mare soils were chosen to start our characterization because they contain minerals and glasses that have vastly contrasting chemistries (e.g., pyroxene versus plagioclase versus agglutinitic glass) thereby making their identification by chemistry relatively easy...
    • ...Although low in abundance (i.e., <2%), ilmenite in the Apollo 14 soils, in particular, shows a general slight increase with decreasing grain size (Table 2), contrary to that in mare soils [Taylor et al., 2001a, 2001b]...
    • ...This observation for the mare soils originally led us to conclude [Taylor et al., 2001a, 2001b] that the data appeared to support the fusion of the finest fraction model of agglutinate formation by Papike et al. [1982]...
    • ...[22] A perplexing aspect of the chemical data for the highland soils is present when comparing TiO2 contents of the size separates compared to that of the agglutinitic glass, similar to that for Ti-rich soils [Taylor et al., 2001a, 2001b]...
    • ...This large increase in IS/FeO is attributed to np-Fe 0 that accumulates on the surfaces of the soil particles, as discussed for mare soils [Hapke, 2001; Noble et al., 2001; Pieters et al., 2000, 2001; Taylor et al., 2001a, 2001b; Keller and McKay, 1997; Keller et al., 2000; Wentworth et al., 1999]...
    • ...Furthermore, it would seem that lunar mafic-rich glass is morelikely tomeltthanAl-rich glass,sincemaresoils tendto accumulate a higher overall abundance of agglutinitic glass than highland soils [Taylor et al., 2001a, 2001b, 2003]...

    Lawrence A. Tayloret al. Mineralogical and chemical characterization of lunar highland soils: I...

    • ...We analyzed the data of lunar mare soil and highland soil samples sent back by Apollo missions 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17, which were produced by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) (Taylor et al., 2000, 2001a, b) through the coordinated detailed measurements in this paper...

    Xiaoyu Zhanget al. Quantification of the chemical composition of lunar soil in terms of i...

    • ...The lunar soils were chosen from soils that have been wellcharacterized (Pieters et al., 2000; Taylor et al., 2000, 2001a, b) and are representative of the different terrains on the Moon...

    J. Milleret al. Lunar soil as shielding against space radiation

    • ...The best understood example is the Lunar-style space weathering process which modifies the spectral slope, band intensities and albedo of the soils on the lunar surface (e.g., Pieters et al. 2000; Noble et al. 2001; Taylor et al. 2001; Hapke 2001)...
    • ...Figure 4 – Central wavelengths for Band I and Band II in the spectra of a subset of the lunar soil particle size separates described by Taylor et al. (2001)...

    Michael J. Gaffeyet al. COMPOSITIONAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATIONS OF NEOs FROM VNIR SPECTRO...

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