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Practical leakage-resilient pseudorandom generators

Practical leakage-resilient pseudorandom generators,10.1145/1866307.1866324,Yu Yu,Fran çois-Xavier Standaert,Olivier Pereira,Moti Yung

Practical leakage-resilient pseudorandom generators   (Citations: 3)
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Cryptographic systems and protocols are the core of many Internet security procedures (such as SSL, SSH, IPSEC, DNSSEC, secure mail, etc.). At the heart of all cryptographic functions is a good source of randomness, and for efficiency, the primitive of pseudorandom generator (PRG). PRG can also be used in the design of stream ciphers, for secure communications. The Internet is nowadays composed of many types of devices with very different hardware and software characteristics. Hence, one of the concerns in such open environments is the information "leakage" and its exploitation via the so-called "side channel attacks". A very extensive and current research direction is designing basic cryptographic operations that are resistant to such attacks. Recent works on leakage-resilient PRG and stream ciphers did significant progresses in providing tools for the analysis of side-channel attacks in the standard cryptographic setting. But in the absence of a completely sound model for the leakages, the only constructions that can be proven secure require tweaks that do not correspond to the physical intuition. For example, constructions using an alternating structure, in which a key bit-size of $2n$ can only guarantee a security of at most $2^n$, have been designed for this purpose. In this paper, we provide two methodological contributions, allowing to get rid of these tweaks, or to reduce their impact towards negligible performance overheads. First, we show that the leakage-resilience of a natural, i.e. conform to engineering experience, stateful PRG can be proven under a random oracle based assumption. We then discuss the relevance of this assumption, and argue that it nicely captures the reality of actual side-channel attacks. Second, we provide the first construction of a PRG without alternating structure, that exploits the keying material to its full length and that can be proven leakage-resilient in the standard model. For this purpose, we only need to assume a non adaptive leakage function and a small public memory. We also argue that such an assumption is not only realistic, but necessary for any leakage-resilient primitive that grants adversaries with a (stateless) reinitialization capability. Together with weaker requirements for practical implementations, these contributions further reduce the gap between the theory and practice of physically observable cryptography.
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