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Ultrasound in food processing

Ultrasound in food processing,Malcolm JW Povey,Timothy J Mason

Ultrasound in food processing   (Citations: 95)
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Published in 1998.
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    • ...Power ultrasound (sonication), usually operated at the frequency range of 20–100 kHz at the presence of a liquid medium, is a proven technology for cleaning mechanical parts or electronic circuit boards (Mason et al. 1996; Povey and Mason 1998)...

    Peter Wamburaet al. Effects of Sonication and Edible Coating Containing Rosemary and Tea E...

    • ...The pressure exerted on the human ear by loud sounds is very small (<10 Pa), but ultrasonic pressure in liquids can be high enough (several MPa) to help initiate a phenomenon called inertial cavitation, which can destroy the medium (Hecht, 1996; Povey and Mason, 1998)...
    • ...Ultrasonic equipment consists of the electrical power generator, transducer(s), and emitter, which physically sends the ultrasonic waves into the medium (Povey and Mason, 1998)...
    • ...Exceptions include the “liquid whistle,” which uses purely mechanical energy without an electrical generator to generate ultrasound (Mason et al., 1996), and airborne systems, which do not require an emitter (Gallego-Juárez et al., 2003; Povey and Mason, 1998)...
    • ...The bath has been traditionally used in food processing due to its early availability (Povey and Mason, 1998)...
    • ...The electrical generator is the source of energy for the ultrasonic system, which must drive the transducer (Povey and Mason, 1998)...
    • ...amplitude: 117 μm; Frequency: 20–100 kHz Primarily referred readers to text by Povey and Mason (1998) Piyasena et al. (2003) 3 Ultrasound Applications in Food Processing 75...
    • ...The transducer converts electrical energy (or mechanical energy, in the case of the liquid whistle) into sound energy by vibrating mechanically at ultrasonic frequencies (Povey and Mason, 1998)...
    • ...Povey and Mason (1998) summarize three main types of transducers: liquiddriven, magnetostrictive, and piezoelectric (pzt)...
    • ...While liquid whistles make excellent mixers and homogenizers, most power ultrasound equipment use piezoelectric or magnetostrictive transducers today (Knorr et al., 2004; Povey and Mason, 1998)...
    • ...The piezoelectric transducer (pzt) is the most common type and is used in most ultrasonic processors and reactors and cited often in literature (Aleixo et al., 2004; Gallego-Juárez et al., 2003; Povey and Mason, 1998)...
    • ...The two main forms of emitters are baths and horns (i.e., probes); horns often require the attachment of a horn tip known as a sonotrode (Povey and Mason, 1998)...
    • ...The tank holds a sample in solution and the transducers radiate ultrasound directly into the sample (Povey and Mason, 1998)...
    • ...In contrast, high-intensity ultrasound is used to erode surface contaminations in welding and precision cutting of materials, and also to destroy tumors in therapeutic medical ultrasound (Kennedy et al., 2004; Krefting et al., 2004; Mason, 2003; Povey and Mason, 1998)...
    • ...High-intensity ultrasound is high energy with power intensities above 10 W/cm 2 and low frequency of 10–100 kHz (Povey and Mason, 1998; McClements, 1995)...
    • ...These types of bubble activities in liquids, respectively termed non-inertial and inertial cavitation, are mechanisms that affect the physical and chemical properties of foods (Povey and Mason, 1998)...
    • ...The cavitation activities in liquids can be so intense that living cell walls are broken down, free radicals and sonochemicals are produced, and processes such as seed germination are enhanced whereas enzymatic activities are inhibited (Mason, 2003; McClements, 1995; Povey and Mason, 1998)...
    • ...Studies show that more power causes greater alterations in the material, at least up to some maximum power limit depending upon the properties of the medium in question (De Gennaro et al., 1999; Furuta et al., 2004; Joyce et al., 2003; Mason et al., 1996; Pagán et al., 1999; Povey and Mason, 1998; Riera-Franco de Sarabia et al., 2000; Sun and Li, 2003; Tian et al., 2004)...
    • ...These highacoustic pressures work to destroy microorganisms and enzymes in a food and break down microstructures, through cavitation (Povey and Mason, 1998)...

    Daniela Bermúdez-Aguirreet al. Ultrasound Applications in Food Processing

    • ...The spectacular effects of cavitation phenomena generated using ultrasound (acoustic cavitation) have been effectively harnessed in physical and chemical processing applications in food and bioprocessing industries (Povey and Mason 1998; Mason and Lorimer 2002)...

    Parag R. Gogate. Hydrodynamic Cavitation for Food and Water Processing

    • ...During this last period, a considerable number of publications on experimental work have shown the advantages of ultrasonic activation for many chemical reactions and processes, mainly in the field of organic chemistry (Kelkar et al. 2006; Mason, 2003), crystallization (Li et al., 2006), food (Mason and Povey, 1995), and the pharmaceutical industry (Freitas et al., 2006)...

    Jean-Luc Dion. Contamination-Free Sonoreactor for the Food Industry

    • ...Power ultrasound treatment (sonication), commonly operated at the frequency range of 20–100 kHz in the presence of a liquid medium, is a proven technology for cleaning mechanical parts or electronic circuit boards (Roberts 1991; Mason 1993; Povey and Mason 1997; Patist and Bates 2008)...

    Peter Wamburaet al. Ultrasonication and Edible Coating Effects on Lipid Oxidation of Roast...

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