The current technology available for patterning proteins is reviewed. Examples of two-dimensional protein patterning using conventional photolithographic methods, photochemistry, and self-assembled monolayers are given. Consideration is also given to some major issues affecting protein patterning, including non-specific binding, protein pattern uniformity, and measurement techniques. S-layer nanopatterning and three-dimensional biochip patterning are discussed in possible future directions. In addition, a discussion of the impact of protein patterning technology on the field of biomaterials is discussed.