Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in the bioindicator plants Tillandsia capillaris and Lolium multiflorum exposed at PM 10 monitoring stations in Stuttgart (Germany)
The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. form capillaris and trace elements in T. capillaris and Lolium multiflorum (LAM) cv. Lema was assessed and evaluated in the city of Stuttgart, Germany. Several sites (urban, suburban and rural) categorized according to type and intensity of vehicular traffic were investigated. At these sites, plants of T. capillaris and standardized cultures of L. multiflorum were exposed to ambient air. Foliar concentrations of PAHs (16 priority pollutants according to US-EPA) and of the trace elements Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined. A high level of vehicular traffic was associated with the largest concentrations of PM10 in ambient air and with the highest contents of PAHs and heavy metals in the bioindicator plants. The results showed a similar pattern between T. capillaris and the standardized biomonitor L. multiflorum. Therefore, these results allow us to propose T. capillaris as a suitable bioindicator to assess the distribution of pollution impacts caused by PAHs and trace elements in different subtropical and tropical regions.
, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 208-215, 2010