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Climate change and glacier retreat in northern Tien Shan (Kazakhstan/Kyrgyzstan) using remote sensing data

Climate change and glacier retreat in northern Tien Shan (Kazakhstan/Kyrgyzstan) using remote sensing data,10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.07.009,Global and

Climate change and glacier retreat in northern Tien Shan (Kazakhstan/Kyrgyzstan) using remote sensing data   (Citations: 19)
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This paper presents an analysis of precipitation and temperature trends and a GIS-supported investigation of the related glacier change in the mountain ridges Zailiyskiy and Kungey Alatau, which represent an important part of the northern Tien Shan. The recent glacier coverage was delineated in a semi-automated way using a TM4/TM5 ratio image of a Landsat ETM Scene from the year 1999 and a merged ASTER/SRTM3-DEM. The extent of these glaciers is compared to that of the glaciers in the Soviet Glacier Inventory [UdSSR, Academica Nauk (1966 to 1983). Katalog Lednikov SSSR (in Russian), Gidrometeoizdat. Leningrad], which represents the situation in study area in approx. 1955. Regionalization of temperature and precipitation as well as solar radiation calculation was conducted in order to determine the climate situation at the glaciers.Trend and correlation analysis for the period from 1879 to 2000 at 16 climate stations showed a temperature increase, which have become pronounced since the 1950s. Another strong increase occurred at the beginning of the 1970s and since around 1980, the temperatures have generally stayed at this high level. The trend coefficient was about 0.8 K/100a for the period 1900 to 2000 and about 2.0 K/100a on average for the second half of the last century. The increase was about two times higher than the global average in northern Tien Shan from 1950 until 2000, where the increase was mainly due to temperature rise in autumn and winter. The increase is less pronounced in the mountainous areas, but still obvious. However, the higher temperature increase at the lower stations, located for the most part in cities or larger settlements, may be due in part to increased urbanization. For precipitation, there was a small increase on average, but no clear trend.On the average, the decrease in glacier extent was more than 32% between 1955 and 1999 in the investigated valleys of Zailiyskiy and Kungey Alatau. The glacier retreat was not homogeneous, but depended strongly on the size, location and climate regime at the glaciers. The area loss of the continental-type glaciers with very predominant summer accumulation, as for those situated in the deeply incised Chon-Kemin valley between Zailiyskiy and Kungey Alatau, was conspicuously less, in parts, than the loss at the more maritime glaciers on the northern slope of Zailiyskiy Alatau. This is consistent with the small increase in summer temperatures. However, under dryer conditions with high solar radiation input, such as with glaciers in the Chon-Aksu valley in Kungey Alatau, the area retreat of the continental-type glaciers can be even more pronounced than that of the more maritime glaciers.
Journal: Global and Planetary Change - GLOBAL PLANET CHANGE , vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 1-12, 2007
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    • ...is also documented by Bolch (2007) and suggested that the glacier retreat in northern Tian Shan correlates well with increased air temperatures...

    Kaiming Liet al. On the relationship between local topography and small glacier change ...

    • ...has attracted a large amount of attention for climate change research during the past decades (Li et al., 2006; Aizen et al., 2006; Bolch, 2007; Kutuzov et al., 2009; Narama et al., 2010)...

    Shengjie Wanget al. Glacier area variation and climate change in the Chinese Tianshan Moun...

    • ...Precipitation at altitudes about 3,000 m asl ranges from more than 1,000 mm/a on windward northern slopes to less than 800 mm in a leeward valley south of the main mountain ridges (Bolch 2007)...
    • ...The steady-state equilibrium line altitude of glaciers is situated at about 3,800 m asl on northern slopes and between 3,900 and 4,000 m asl on southern slopes (Bolch 2007)...
    • ...We expanded the analysis on glacier shrinkage based on Bolch (2007, 2008) and include the glacier area of 2007 for those lakes adjacent to a glacier...
    • ...The recent glaciers were delineated based on the 2007 and 2008 Landsat ETM? data (Table 2) using band ratioing (Band 4/Band 5) approach in order to be consistent with the method used by Bolch (2007) for the 1999 ETM? scene...
    • ...We used the regionalisation of the MAAT as suggested by Bolch (2007, 2008) and the limits of the permafrost distribution (sporadic: 2,700 m asl, discontinuous: 3,200, and continuous: 3,500 m asl, Gorbunov et al. 1996)...
    • ...Temperatures in northern Tien Shan have increased about 0.8 K/100a between the period 1900‐2000 and about 2.0 K/100a on average for the second half of the last century (Giese et al. 2007; Bolch 2007)...
    • ...No significant trend was found with the precipitation (Aizen et al. 1997; Bolch 2007)...
    • ...The glacier shrinkage at the northern edge of the Tien Shan is more pronounced than the central parts with its continental mountain ranges (Aizen et al. 2006; Bolch 2007; Kutuzov and Shahgedanova 2009; Narama et al. 2010b; Solomina et al. 2004)...

    T. Bolchet al. Identification of potentially dangerous glacial lakes in the northern ...

    • ...winter temperature and its contribution to glacier melt should be considered (e.g., Bolch, 2007; Beniston, 2006)...

    Wenbin Wanget al. Monitoring glacial shrinkage using remote sensing and site-observation...

    • ...1977 to 2001) (Khromova and others, 2003); Zailiyskiy and Kungey Alatau (0.7% a–1 from 1955 to 1999) (Bolch, 2007), northern Tien Shan; and the drainage of the U ¨ ru ¨ mqi river (0.5% a–1 from 1964 to 1992) (Chen and others, 1996)...

    Yetang Wanget al. Glacier changes in the Karlik Shan, eastern Tien Shan, during 1971/72-...

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