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Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of Greater Cairo

Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of Greater Cairo,10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.051,Atmospheric Environment,M. I. Khoder

Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of Greater Cairo   (Citations: 29)
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Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) samples were collected at three locations, two in urban areas in Greater Cairo (Ramsis and Haram) and background one in rural area in Menofiya province (Kafr El-Akram), during the period of June, 2004–August, 2004. The highest concentrations of VOCs were found in Ramsis, whereas the lowest concentrations were detected in Kafr El-Akram, and the difference in mean concentrations were statistically significant (p<0.001). Among all of the measured VOCs species, the contribution of individual VOC to the total VOCs concentration were very similar in Ramsis and Haram locations, toluene was the most abundant compound followed by (m,p)-xylene. This similarity implies a similar emission sources of VOCs in both urban locations, vehicle exhausts are the dominant one. Greater Cairo has high levels of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons compared with many polluted cities in the world. The BTEX (benzene: toluene: ethylbenzene: xylenes) concentration ratios were (2.01:4.94:1:4.95), (2.03:4.91:1:4.87) and (2.31:2.98:1:2.59) in Ramsis, Haram and Kafr El-Akram, respectively. The average toluene/benzene (T/B), (m,p)-xylene/benzene ((m,p)-X/B) and o-xylene/benzene (o-X/B) concentration ratios were 2.45, 1.61and 0.85, respectively in Ramsis and 2.42, 1.61 and 0.78, respectively in Haram. The ratios in both urban locations were of the same magnitude and close to those obtained from automotive exhausts, indicating that the ambient BTEX originate mainly from motor vehicle emissions. However, the (T/B), ((m,p)-X/B) and (o-X/B) concentration ratios were 1.29, 0.71 and 0.41 in Kafr El-Akram, respectively. These ratios were lower than those found in Ramsis and Haram locations and in automotive exhaust, suggesting that the BTEX in Kafr El-Akram do not come from a local source and are exclusively results from the diffusion and dispersion of VOCs produced from the traffic density in the surrounding cities. Significant positive correlation coefficients (p<0.001) were found between the concentrations of BTEX compounds at the three sampling locations. The diurnal variation of VOCs concentrations in Ramsis location showed two daily peaks linked to traffic density.
Journal: Atmospheric Environment - ATMOS ENVIRON , vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 554-566, 2007
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    • ...Based on findings from previous studies, Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to determine associations between the VOCs and between each VOC and SF6; these correlations were calculated for each sampling period individually and also for whole sets of measurements spanning all five sampling periods (Caselli et al, 2010; Hoque et al, 2008; Khoder, 2007; Lee et al, 2002; Miller et al, 2010; Parra et al, 2006; Samet, 2007)...

    Timothy M. Barzyket al. Near-road multipollutant profiles: Associations between volatile organ...

    • ...The BTEX distribution pattern observed in the study is similar to that shown in other urban locations (Khoder 2007) and in agreement with the fact that toluene is the most dominant species in many VOC emission sources from motor vehicle exhaust and gasoline evaporation (Na et al. 2004, 2005)...
    • ...The B/T ratio has been widely used as a tracer for emission sources because they are present in different proportions according to emission source type (Gelencsér et al. 1997 ;G uicherit1997; Khoder 2007; Henry et al. 1994; Schürmann et al. 2007 ;H o et al.2004; Lee et al. 2002; Bravo et al. 2002)...

    Kyung-Hwa Junget al. Personal, indoor, and outdoor exposure to VOCs in the immediate vicini...

    • ...[ 18 ] In Izmir and Montelibretti concentrations of 0...

    José A. Sousaet al. Outdoor and indoor benzene evaluation by GC-FID and GC-MS/MS

    • ...BTEX play a vital role in the tropospheric chemistry and pose health risk to human being (Khoder 2007)...
    • ...The International Agency for Research on Cancer, classified benzene as a carcinogenic compound, where it is emitted mainly from petrol-fuelled cars, and thus, it is found in all urban areas (Skov et al. 2001; Kerbachia et al. 2006; Khoder 2007)...

    Wesam Ahmed Al Madhounet al. Levels of benzene concentrations emitted from motor vehicles in variou...

    • ...This indicates that in addition to the limited vehicular source, this residential area receives BTEX from the surrounding areas (Khoder 2007)...
    • ...Interspecific ratios were taken as an indicator to compare the BTEX emission sources (Khoder 2007; Guo et al. 2007; Kerbachi et al. 2006)...

    Vasu Tiwariet al. Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of petroc...

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