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Oscillating Quaternary water levels of the Marmara Sea and vigorous outflow into the Aegean Sea from the Marmara Sea–Black Sea drainage corridor

Oscillating Quaternary water levels of the Marmara Sea and vigorous outflow into the Aegean Sea from the Marmara Sea–Black Sea drainage corridor,10.10

Oscillating Quaternary water levels of the Marmara Sea and vigorous outflow into the Aegean Sea from the Marmara Sea–Black Sea drainage corridor   (Citations: 100)
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Detailed interpretation of single-channel air-gun and deep-tow boomer profiles demonstrates that the Marmara Sea, Turkey, experienced small-amplitude (∼70 m) fluctuations in sea level during the later Quaternary, limited in magnitude by the sill depth of the Strait of Dardanelles. Moderate subsidence along the southern shelf and Quaternary glacio-eustatic sea-level variations created several stacked deltaic successions, separated by major shelf-crossing unconformities, which developed during the transitions from global glacial to interglacial periods. Near the Strait of Dardanelles, a series of sand-prone deposits are identified beneath an uppermost (Holocene) transparent mud drape. The sandy deposits thicken into mounds with the morphology and cross-sectional geometries of barrier islands, sand waves, and current-generated marine bars. All cross-stratification indicates unidirectional flow towards the Dardanelles prior to the deposition of the transparent drape which began ∼7000 years BP, in strong support of the notion that the Marmara Sea flowed westwards into the Aegean Sea through the Dardanelles at times of deglaciation in northern Europe. The global sea-level curve shows that, at ∼11,000 and ∼9500 years BP, sea level rose to the sill depths of the Straits of Dardanelles and Bosphorus, respectively. The effect from ∼11,000 to ∼9500 years BP was seawater incursion into the Marmara Sea, drowning and formation of algal-serpulid bioherms atop lowstand barrier islands, and transgression of shelves and lowstand deltas. At ∼9500 years BP, glacial meltwater temporarily stored in the Black Sea lake, developed into a vigorous southward flow toward the Aegean Sea, forming west-directed sandy bedforms in the western Marmara Sea and initiating deposition of sapropel S1 in the Aegean Sea. This strong outflow persisted until ∼7000 years BP, after which a mud drape began to accumulate in the Marmara Sea and euryhaline Mediterranean mollusks successfully migrated into a progressively more saline Black Sea where sapropel deposition began. Most eastern Mediterranean sapropels from S1 to S11 appear to correlate with periods of rising sea level and breaching, or near-breaching, of the Bosphorus sill. These events are believed to coincide with times of vigorous outflow of low-salinity (?fresh) surface waters transiting the Black Sea–Marmara Sea corridor, and ultimately derived from melting of northern European ice sheets.
Journal: Marine Geology - MAR GEOLOGY , vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 275-302, 1999
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    • ...In a recent study, Çağatay et al. (2009) documented that brackish- to freshwater fauna associated with lacustrine conditions prevailed in the SoM during marine isotope stage (MIS) 3 to MIS 2. During these stages, the timing of a connection with the Black Sea is still under debate (Aksu et al. 1999, 2002a, b ;Ç ağatay et al. 2000, 2009 ;K aminski et al.2002; Major et al. 2002 ;M udie et al. 2002, 2004 ;R yan et al.2003 ;B ahr et ...
    • ...During the initial phase of this marine transgression, the shelf area between the Büyük and Küçük Çekmece lagoons was colonized by bioherms (recorded by Aksu et al. 1999, 2002b, and Çağatay et al. 2009), which document an increase in salinity in response to the incursion of Mediterranean waters...

    Kürşad Kadir Erişet al. Late glacial to Holocene sea-level changes in the Sea of Marmara: new ...

    • ...Especially since Ryan et al. (1997) suggested that the Black Sea was flooded by catastrophic overflow from the Marmara Sea through the Bosphorus in the early Holocene, sea-level fluctuations in the Marmara and Black seas, and the related Mediterranean–Black Sea water connection through the Dardanelles and Bosphorus straits, have received renewed attention with controversial outcome (e.g., Aksu et al. 1999, 2002; Ballard et al. 2000; ...

    Atike Naziket al. Possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the la...

    • ...[4] The Sea of Marmara was a freshwater lake isolated from both the Mediterranean and Black Seas prior to the last glacioeustatic sea level rise [Aksu et al., 1999; Çağatay et al., 2000; Ryan et al., 2003] with the transition to a marine environment occurring progressively from 14.7 to 12.4 kyr BP and with a lithological transition in sediment cores occurring at about 12 kyr BP [Çağatay et al., 2000; Vidal et al., 2010]...

    M. D. Tryonet al. Pore fluid chemistry of the North Anatolian Fault Zone in the Sea of M...

    • ...Aksu et al.1999, 2002a, 2002b; Hiscott and Aksu 2002; Hiscott et al. 2002 ;K aminski et al.2002; Mudie et al. 2002)...
    • ...It is essentially a reinterpretation of erosional features at the base of the CS and Şarköy Canyon previously reported by Ergin et al. (2007) and Gökaşan et al. (2008), supported by new seismic and multi-beam bathymetric data from the Marmara Sea exit of the CS. In addition, data previously published by Aksu et al. (1999), Hiscott and Aksu (2002), Hiscott et al. (2002), Yaltırak et al. (2002) and Çağatay et al. (2009) are ...
    • ...Çanakkale Strait, the Marmara Sea and the Aegean Sea by Smith et al. (1995), Çağatay et al. (1998), Aksu et al. (1999, 2002a), Hiscott and Aksu (2002), Hiscott et al. (2002), Yaltırak et al. (2002), Ergin et al. (2007), Eriş et al. (2007), Gökaşan et al. (2008 )a ndİşler et al. (2008), as well as studies on global marine isotope stages (MISs) and sea-level fluctuations by Waelbroeck et al. (2002) and Lisiecki and Raymo ...
    • ...On the basis of sediment cores and seismic data from the southern shelf of the Marmara Sea, Ergin et al. (1997) and Aksu et al. (1999) subsequently recognized that the upper surface of the subaqueous sediments (unit C of Smith et al. 1995) represented a regional unconformity which must have developed during the last sea-level lowstand in the Marmara Sea...
    • ...On the south-western Marmara Sea shelf, Aksu et al. (1999) recorded westerly and south-westerly prograding delta deposits indicative of flow towards the Çanakkale Strait at the end of the last glacial period...
    • ...Ergin et al. 1997; Aksu et al. 1999; McHugh et al. 2008)...

    Erkan Gökasanet al. Late Quaternary evolution of the Çanakkale Strait region (Dardanelles,...

    • ...This member includes Paratethyan-type bivalve fauna representing the Sarmatian—Pontian age (Akartuna 1968; Emre et al. 1998)...

    Yeşim İslamoğlu. Middle Pleistocene bivalves of the İznik lake basin (Eastern Marmara, ...

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