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Morphology and architecture of the present canyon and channel system of the Zaire deep-sea fan

Morphology and architecture of the present canyon and channel system of the Zaire deep-sea fan,10.1016/S0264-8172(02)00009-0,Marine and Petroleum Geol

Morphology and architecture of the present canyon and channel system of the Zaire deep-sea fan   (Citations: 90)
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The Zaire deep-sea fan is one of the largest fans in the world still affected by turbidite sedimentation along a unique active meandering turbidite channel. This active channel is fed by turbidity currents, which are generated at the Zaire River mouth, and flow via a deeply entrenched canyon across the shelf and the continental slope.Based on a detailed study of the morphology and architecture of the present Zaire Canyon/Channel, several main zones can be defined (the canyon, the upper-fan valley, the upper and the lower channel-levee system leading into distal lobes). They are characterised by different behaviours in terms of erosion, transport and sedimentation within the canyon/channel.An important characteristic of the Zaire Canyon/Channel is the deep incision of the thalweg, well below the regional sea floor along its whole path. The origin of this entrenchment may be linked to the incision of the Zaire Canyon back across the shelf during the last sea-level rise. This incision of the canyon has allowed the continuity of turbidite activity during the Holocene, in maintaining the connection between the canyon head and the river mouth (in contrast to most of other large deep-sea fans, which are generally inactive during highstands).The entrenchment of the Zaire Canyon/Channel limits the overflow of turbidity currents and the turbidite sedimentation over levees, and prevents avulsion along the upper part of the Zaire Channel. Most of the sediment transported in turbidity currents are probably led down to the lower channel-levee system and the distal lobes.
Journal: Marine and Petroleum Geology - MAR PETROL GEOL , vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 445-467, 2002
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    • ...The submarine canyons in the prolongation of these rivers are considered to have been most active during periods of lowered sea level, since they were closely coupled to the sediment input by river systems (Damuth 1994; Babonneau et al. 2002; Schwenk et al. 2003; Antobreh and Krastel 2006)...

    Sebastian Krastelet al. Sediment dynamics and geohazards off Uruguay and the de la Plata River...

    • ...Submarine Canyon is gentle with 0.6 ° gradient calculated through linear regression method (see Figure 3), which is less than the gradient of San Antonio Submarine Canyon (2-6.3°) and Save Submarine Canyons (1.7°) in active continental margin[7] and more than the gradient of Zaire Submarine Canyon(0.1°-0.5°)in passive continental margin [8]...

    Xibin Hanet al. Geomorphology and tectonic interpretation of Zhujiang Submarine Canyon...

    • ...The channels range from a few metres to a few kilometres in width, up to several hundreds of metres deep and may be tens to thousands of kilometres in length (Clark & Pickering 1996; Huebscher et al. 1997; Babonneau et al. 2002)...
    • ...sediment. Moreover, stacked channel–levee systems (in which younger channels and their levees occupy the topographically lower regions between older levees) form a high proportion of the thick, dominantly fine-grained sediment accumulations of the continental slope and rise, especially offshore from major river systems such as the Indus, Bengal, Congo and Amazon (Kolla & Schwab 1995; Huebscher et al. 1997; Babonneau et al. 2002)...

    V. K. B IRMANet al. The shape of submarine levees: exponential or power law?

    • ...the Amazon, Zaire, NAMOC systems and many more (Hesse et al., 1987; Flood et al., 1991; Piper and Normark, 2001; Babonneau et al., 2002)...
    • ...During the last few decades, many deepsea research projects have focused on the west and northwest African margins, of major interest for both the petroleum industry and academia (Wynn et al., 2000; Babonneau et al., 2002; Saugy and Eyer, 2003; Antobreh and Krastel, 2006) The eastern African margin, however, remains very poorly studied...
    • ...For similar water depths, it appears clearly that the Tanzania channel differs from point source submarine channels such as the Amazon or Zaire channels that are typically V-shaped (mixed erosional and depositional), and have a meandering shape similar to subaerial rivers (Pirmez and Flood,1995; Peakall et al., 2000; Babonneau et al., 2002; Wynn et al., 2007; Fig. 5a)...
    • ...They are compared with the data from the Zaire channel (Babonneau et al., 2002), the Amazon channel (Pirmez and Flood, 1995), and the NAMOC channel (Hesse et al.,1987)...

    J. Bourgetet al. Discovery of a giant deep-sea valley in the Indian Ocean, off eastern ...

    • ...These are controlled by the entrenchment of the thalweg, which prevents easy lateral migration (Babonneau et al. 2002 ), and by structural lineaments constituting zones of weakness...

    M. Gaudinet al. Past and present sedimentary activity in the Capbreton Canyon, souther...

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