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Structure of the quasi-perpendicular laminar bow shock

Structure of the quasi-perpendicular laminar bow shock,10.1029/JA080i004p00502,Journal of Geophysical Research,E. W. Greenstadt,C.T. Russell,F. L. Sca

Structure of the quasi-perpendicular laminar bow shock   (Citations: 44)
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One of the major applications of the study of particles and fields in space is to the physics $f collisionless plasmas in general and to collisionless shocks in particular. Shock phenomena are difficult to scale in the laboratory and notoriously complex to represent in theory. A principal reason for their theoretical complexity is the number of independent parameters that can affect shock structure and shock dissipation processes. The contribution of satellite measurements to the experimental study of collisionless shocks lies in the opportunity to obtain repeated high-resolution observations of the earth's bow shock, which is constantly available for examination, for a wide range of instantaneous parameter sets. Naturally, the most advantageous use of satellite data is in illuminating shock structures under complicated conditions least accessible to laboratory and theoretical attacks. However, spacecraft shock observations are not without their limitations too, the most blatant being the need for simultaneous measurements by at least two vehicles, one of which must define the parameter set under investigation through measurement upstream in the continuously changing solar wind. A second, not much less serious, limitation is the need for reliable estimates of bow shock velocities, for the shock is seldom stationary in the spacecraft frame, and without its velocity, its dimensions may not be correctly inferred, especially when complex structure prevails. A third limitation lies in the difficulty of finding comprehensive plasma instrumentation on a single spacecraft. In view of these restrictions, it is not inappropriate to seek first a comprehensive characterization of the bow shock in its simplest phases, which are already fairly well understood theoretically, for cases in which all or most of these limitations can be overcome. We regard this as a necessary step to more advanced analysis of the bow shock under conditions where fresh ground will have to be broken. In this paper we therefore describe several observations of the bow shock in a single day, February 12, 1969, when the important parameters M and/8
Journal: Journal of Geophysical Research , vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 502-514, 1975
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    • ...In low Mach number shocks the field profile is expected to be stationary and one-dimensional [Greenstadt et al., 1975; Russell et al., 1982; Farris et al., 1993], while there are no or almost no reflected ions, provided the upstream plasma is not too hot...
    • ...Observations [see Greenstadt et al., 1975; Russell et al., 1982; Farris et al., 1993; Russell et al. ,2 009], however, show that in addition to high-frequency (smallscale) noise, therearelarge-scalewaves on the downstream part of the magnetic profiles of such shocks...

    L. Ofmanet al. Collisionless relaxation of ion distributions downstream of laminar qu...

    • ...In low Mach number shocks the field profile is expected to be stationary and one-dimensional [Greenstadt et al., 1975; Russell et al., 1982; Farris et al., 1993], while there are no or almost no reflected ions, provided the upstream plasma is not too hot...
    • ...Observations [see Greenstadt et al., 1975; Russell et al., 1982; Farris et al., 1993; Russell et al. ,2 009], however, show that in addition to high-frequency (smallscale) noise, therearelarge-scalewaves on the downstream part of the magnetic profiles of such shocks...

    L. Ofmanet al. Collisionless relaxation of ion distributions downstream of laminar qu...

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