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Cytokines and acute phase proteins associated with acute swine influenza infection in pigs

Cytokines and acute phase proteins associated with acute swine influenza infection in pigs,10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.12.012,Veterinary Journal,Filip Barbé,K

Cytokines and acute phase proteins associated with acute swine influenza infection in pigs   (Citations: 6)
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This study set out to investigate the cytokines and acute phase proteins (APPs) associated with the acute stages of experimentally-induced swine influenza virus (SIV) infection in 3-week-old, colostrum-deprived, caesarean-derived piglets. The piglets were inoculated intratracheally with 107.5 50% egg infective dose [EID50] Swine/Belgium/1/98 (H1N1) SIV and were euthanased at time-points between 0 and 120h post-inoculation (PI). Broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung homogenates and sera were examined for inflammatory mediators by bioassay or ELISA. Interferon (IFN)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α peaked in BALF 24–30h PI, when virus titres and the severity of clinical signs were maximal.Whereas IFN-γ and IL-12, but not IL-18, increased in tandem in BALF, serum cytokine concentrations were either undetectable or were up to 100-fold lower. The APP C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin peaked 24h later than the cytokines and reached higher levels in serum than in BALF. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) only increased in BALF. Lung virus titres tightly correlated with BALF IFN-α, IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-12, as well as with serum IL-6, IFN-α and IFN-γ. Signs of disease correlated with the same cytokines in BALF and serum, as well as with BALF LBP and serum CRP. The findings suggest that IFN-γ and IL-12 play a role in the pathogenesis of SIV and that APPs are induced by cytokines. This influenza infection model may have value in assessing the therapeutic potential of cytokine antagonists.
Journal: Veterinary Journal - VET J , vol. 187, no. 1, pp. 48-53, 2011
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    • ...Inflammatory cytokines are suggested to be involved in pathogenesis in humans, pigs, and horses [13-16]...
    • ...Experimental infection of pigs with swine influenza virus correlated the clinical signs with the levels of INF-a ,i nterleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) [13]...
    • ...In vivo studies in pigs or horses infected with influenza virus indicated that the clinical signs are correlated with the production of inflammatory cytokines [13,14]...
    • ...When 3-week-old piglets were infected with swine H1N1 influenza virus (A/Swine/ Belgium/1/98), inflammatory cytokines such as INF-a, IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-a peaked in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid 24-39 h pi, when viral titers and clinical signs of infected pigs were the highest [13]...

    Nguyen Tai Nanget al. Induction of inflammatory cytokines and toll-like receptors in chicken...

    • ...Although avian influenza virus (AIV) has been shown to inhibit interferon type I (IFN) induction by its NS1 protein, large amounts of IFN can be detected upon infection of mammals [1-7]...
    • ...Nevertheless, with pigs infected with swine influenza only up to 500U IFN-a/mL serum and up to around 10 000 U/g in lung tissue, were found [4]...

    Hervé R Moulinet al. High interferon type I responses in the lung, plasma and spleen during...

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