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A Conservative Procedure for the Estimation of Multiple Insemination in Drosophila

A Conservative Procedure for the Estimation of Multiple Insemination in Drosophila,10.1086/284309,American Naturalist,Ethan Akin,Howard Levene,Louis L

A Conservative Procedure for the Estimation of Multiple Insemination in Drosophila   (Citations: 6)
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Journal: American Naturalist - AMER NATURALIST , vol. 124, no. 5, 1984
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    • ...These statistical methods were employed to correct the population estimate of the proportion of multiply sired clutches, but sampling problems are unavoidable in classifying individual clutches as singly or multiply sired (Akin et al. 1984)...

    Devon E. Pearseet al. Multiple paternity, sperm storage, and reproductive success of female ...

    • ...In some cases, the progeny being assayed may fail to reflect the diversity of sperm genotypes stored by a female, and thus some informative combinations are not seen; this is a problem in the statistical sampling of progeny (Akin et al. 1984)...
    • ...A third, more complicated way to overcome the limitations of direct observations of three or more paternal alleles is to use the maximum likelihood methods of Akin et al. (1984) or Williams and Evarts (1989) to account for both parental and progeny sampling problems...
    • ...Akin et al. (1984) use the presence and absence of distinct genotypes in a brood, while Williams and Evarts (1989) use unlikely progeny ratios...
    • ...The method of Akin et al. (1984) is more eÅcient (smaller standard errors) for highly polymorphic loci (four or more alleles with intermediate frequency), whereas Williams and Evarts’ technique is more eÅcient for loci with low allelic diversity (two or three alleles with intermediate frequency; see Williams and Evarts 1989 for more detailed criteria identifying conditions favoring one or the other technique)...
    • ...In our data, only Icd-2 proved suÅciently polymorphic to favor analysis by the technique of Akin et al. (1984), and then only clearly so for one population...
    • ...In all cases, the Williams-Evarts method yielded smaller confidence intervals than the technique of Akin et al. (1984) from our data, and the estimates from the method of Akin et al. (1984) were within the Williams and Evarts-derived confidence intervals...
    • ...In all cases, the Williams-Evarts method yielded smaller confidence intervals than the technique of Akin et al. (1984) from our data, and the estimates from the method of Akin et al. (1984) were within the Williams and Evarts-derived confidence intervals...

    Joel C. Trexleret al. Variation among populations of the sailfin molly in the rate of concur...

    • ...Nonetheless, multiple paternity has been documented in many taxa (e.g., mammals : Birdsall and Nash 1973; Hanken and Sherman 1981, birds: Gowaty and Karlin 1984; Gavin and Bollinger 1985; Evarts and Williams 1987; Gibbs et al. 1990, insects: Ayala et al. 1972; Akin et al. 1984; Levine et al. 1980; Watson 1991, and fish: Avise and Shapiro 1986; Travis et al. 1990), indicating that females of many species do regularly mate with more than one ...

    Frances E. Barryet al. Multiple paternity in a wild population of northern water snakes, Nero...

    • ...An examination of both the number of alleles and the number of distinct genotypes in each litter can be used to conservatively assess the incidence of multiple paternity (Akin et al. 1984; Avise and Shapiro 1986; Levine et al. 1987)...
    • ...Akin et al. (1984) developed a method to estimate the real frequency of multiple paternity in cases where individuals share alleles...
    • ...Applying the approach of Akin et al. (1984), and combining our results from the four independent loci (assuming a mean litter size of 14), we estimate that the real frequency of multiple paternity in the 32 litters examined was 72% (variance =...

    James M. Schwartzet al. Multiple paternity in wild populations of the garter snake, Thamnophis...

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