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Chronic exposure to ambient particulate matter alters cardiac gene expression patterns and markers of oxidative stress in rats

Chronic exposure to ambient particulate matter alters cardiac gene expression patterns and markers of oxidative stress in rats,10.1007/s11869-010-0089

Chronic exposure to ambient particulate matter alters cardiac gene expression patterns and markers of oxidative stress in rats   (Citations: 1)
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Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) significantly increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. We hypothesized that some components of PM can affect the gene expression patterns in the hearts of rats exposed for 3 months to filtered air (FA), coarse (CP; 2.5 p p ≤ 2.5 μm) or ultrafine (UFP; dp ≤ 0.18 μm) components of PM. The median diameters of CP, FP, and UFP were 3 μm, 0.7 μm and 0.07 μm, respectively. Exposures (n = 8 per group) were performed using a particle concentrator system in Riverside, California, an area with high ambient levels of photochemically derived gaseous and particulate pollutants. At the end of the exposure, hearts were subjected to gene expression profiling by using Illumina RatRef-12 bead chips and levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), a biomarker of oxidative stress, were measured. Applying fold ratio >1.5 (for both up- and down-regulated genes), we found three genes in the CP and nine genes in the UFP groups with significantly changed expression, compared with FA. No significant changes in gene expression patterns were observed in the FP group. In the UFP group thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip), a negative regulator of an antioxidant enzyme thioredoxin, and cytochrome P450 (Cyp2e1), an enzyme involved in the metabolism of foreign substances demonstrated significant up-regulation (fold ratios 1.79 and 1.57, respectively, with false discovery rate, FDR < 0.05). In the CP group there was also a trend towards increased Txnip expression (fold ratio 1.43, FDR > 0.05) and significant increase in the Cyp2e1 expression (fold ratio 1.79, FDR < 0.05). Changes in the Txnip and Cyp2e1 expression showed statistically significant positive correlation to each other (p < 0.0009) and were confirmed by real-time PCR. In addition Txnip and Cyp2e1 expression demonstrated statistically significant moderate correlation with the levels of MDA in the heart. Up-regulation of both Cyp2e1 and Txnip are observed in hearts of patients with certain cardiac diseases. Therefore, chronic exposure to CP and UFP directly affects expression of disease-relevant genes in the myocardium.
Journal: Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health , vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 15-25, 2011
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