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Knockdown resistance ( kdr )-like mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of a malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and PCR assays for their detection

Knockdown resistance ( kdr )-like mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of a malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and PCR assays for their detec

Knockdown resistance ( kdr )-like mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of a malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and PCR assays for their detection  
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Background  Knockdown resistance (kdr) in insects, resulting from mutation(s) in the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene is one of the mechanisms of resistance against DDT and pyrethroid-group of insecticides. The most common mutation(s) associated with knockdown resistance in insects, including anophelines, has been reported to be present at residue Leu1014 in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of the vgsc gene. This study reports the presence of two alternative kdr-like mutations, L1014S and L1014F, at this residue in a major malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and describes new PCR assays for their detection. Methods  Part of the vgsc (IIS4-S5 linker-to-IIS6 transmembrane segment) of An. stephensi collected from Alwar (Rajasthan, India) was PCR-amplified from genomic DNA, sequenced and analysed for the presence of deduced amino acid substitution(s). Results  Analysis of DNA sequences revealed the presence of two alternative non-synonymous point mutations at L1014 residue in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of vgsc, i.e., T>C mutation on the second position and A>T mutation on the third position of the codon, leading to Leu (TTA)-to-Ser (TCA) and -Phe (TTT) amino acid substitutions, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed for identification of each of these two point mutations. Genotyping of An. stephensi mosquitoes from Alwar by PCR assays revealed the presence of both mutations, with a high frequency of L1014S. The PCR assays developed for detection of the kdr mutations were specific as confirmed by DNA sequencing of PCR-genotyped samples. Conclusions  Two alternative kdr-like mutations, L1014S and L1014F, were detected in An. stephensi with a high allelic frequency of L1014S. The occurrence of L1014S is being reported for the first time in An. stephensi. Two specific PCR assays were developed for detection of two kdr-like mutations in An. stephensi.
Journal: Malaria Journal - MALAR J , vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-7, 2011
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