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Cylindrocarpon species associated with apple tree roots in South Africa and their quantification using real-time PCR

Cylindrocarpon species associated with apple tree roots in South Africa and their quantification using real-time PCR,10.1007/s10658-010-9728-4,Europea

Cylindrocarpon species associated with apple tree roots in South Africa and their quantification using real-time PCR   (Citations: 3)
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Cylindrocarpon species are known to be a component of the pathogen/pest complex that incites apple replant disease. In South Africa, no information is available on apple associated Cylindrocarpon species and their pathogenicity. Therefore, these aspects were investigated. Among the isolates recovered from apple roots in South Africa, four species (C. destructans, C. liriodendri, C. macrodidymum and C. pauciseptatum) were identified using β-tubulin gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. This is the first report of C. liriodendri, C. macrodidymum and C. pauciseptatum on apple trees. Cylindrocarpon macrodidymum was the most prevalent. Isolates within each of the four species were pathogenic towards apple seedlings, but varied in their virulence. With a single exception, all isolates were able to induce lesion development on seedling roots. Only 57% of the isolates, which represented all four species, were able to cause a significant reduction in seedling weight and/or height. The greatest seedling growth reductions were caused by two isolates of C. destructans, and one isolate each of C. liriodendri and C. macrodidymum. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was developed for simultaneous detection of all four Cylindrocarpon species. qPCR analyses of Cylindrocarpon from the roots of inoculated seedlings showed that the amount of Cylindrocarpon DNA in roots was not correlated to seedling growth reductions (weight and height) or root rot. The qPCR method is, however, very useful for the rapid identification of apple associated Cylindrocarpon species in roots. The technique may also hold potential for being indicative of Cylindrocarpon disease potential if rhizosphere soil rather than roots are used.
Journal: European Journal of Plant Pathology - EUR J PLANT PATHOLOGY , vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 637-651, 2011
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    • ...Cylindrocarpon root rot causes losses up to 30% on ginseng (Panax quinquefolium )( Seifert et al. 2003), and plays an important role in black foot rot of grapevines (Halleen et al. 2004, 2006), apple replant disease (Tewoldemedhin et al. 2010), and beech cankers (Castlebury et al. 2006), to name but a few hosts of economic...

    Ana Cabralet al. Cylindrocarpon root rot: multi-gene analysis reveals novel species wit...

    • ...In contrast, the pathogenicity of Cylindrocarpon species has been reported recently (Tewoldemedhin et al. 2010)...
    • ...Four-week-old apple seedlings were produced as previously described (Tewoldemedhin et al. 2010)...
    • ...Co. KG, Düren, Germany), according to manufacturers instructions with a few slight modifications as previously described (Tewoldemedhin et al. 2010)...
    • ...Although it will be important to target oomycetes in management strategies, suppression of isolates in other genera that have low virulence such as some isolates in the genera Cylindrocarpon (Tewoldemedhin et al. 2010), Fusarium and Rhizoctonia (current study), should not be neglected...

    Yared Tesfai Tewoldemedhinet al. Characterization of fungi ( Fusarium and Rhizoctonia ) and oomycetes (...

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