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Escape from X inactivation in mice and humans

Escape from X inactivation in mice and humans,10.1186/gb-2010-11-6-213,Genome Biology,Joel B Berletch,Fan Yang,Christine M Disteche

Escape from X inactivation in mice and humans   (Citations: 9)
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A subset of X-linked genes escapes silencing by X inactivation and is expressed from both X chromosomes in mammalian females. Species-specific differences in the identity of these genes have recently been discovered, suggesting a role in the evolution of sex differences. Chromatin analyses have aimed to discover how genes remain expressed within a repressive environment.
Journal: Genome Biology - GENOME BIOL , vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1-7, 2010
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    • ... However, a finite set of genes on both mouse and human X chromosomes escape inactivation, and would therefore be expected to exhibit higher expression levels in XX compared to XY cells ...

    Xuqi Chenet al. The Number of X Chromosomes Causes Sex Differences in Adiposity in Mic...

    • ...These diVerences in outcome for monosomy X between humans and mice are generally attributed to the greater number of genes that are expressed from the Xi in humans (Carrel et al. 1999; Berletch et al. 2010)...
    • ...The mammalian X and Y were once homologs and since the sex-determining SRY gene was acquired, the proto-Y has undergone rearrangements that suppressed recombination between the proto-X and Y, resulting in degeneration of the Y (Ross et al. 2005; Berletch et al. 2010; reviewed in...

    Christine Yanget al. X-chromosome inactivation: molecular mechanisms from the human perspec...

    • ... These exceptional genes cause sex-specific differences in gene expression, which can vary between tissues, adding another layer of complexity to the regulation of X-linked gene...

    Xinxian Denget al. Evidence for compensatory upregulation of expressed X-linked genes in ...

    • ...fewer escape genes in mouse than human (Berletch et al. 2010; Lopes et al. 2010; Yang et al. 2010), the majority of the mouse escape genes identiWed thus far play a role in brain development and are conserved in human where they have been implicated in intellectual disability syndromes (Ropers 2010)...

    Joel B. Berletchet al. Genes that escape from X inactivation

    • ...On the other hand, Berletch et al. (2010) suggest that differences in DNA sequence or in epigenetic modifications may make some genes less susceptible to inactivation...
    • ...Berletch et al. (2010) point out that there are far fewer escape genes in the mouse than in man, and these genes are randomly distributed along the chromosome rather than concentrated in the evolutionary new regions...

    Barbara R. Migeon. The single active X in human cells: evolutionary tinkering personified

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