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Sputum and nasal lavage lung-specific biomarkers before and after smoking cessation

Sputum and nasal lavage lung-specific biomarkers before and after smoking cessation,10.1186/1471-2466-11-35,BMC Pulmonary Medicine,Izolde Bouloukaki,I

Sputum and nasal lavage lung-specific biomarkers before and after smoking cessation  
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Background  Little is known about the effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation. Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI), Clara Cell protein 16 (CC16), elafin and human defensin beta-2 (HBD-2) protect human airways against inflammation and oxidative stress. In this longitudinal study we aimed to investigate changes in sputum and nasal lavage SLPI, CC16, elafin and HBD-2 levels in healthy smokers after 6 and 12 months of smoking cessation. Methods  Induced sputum and nasal lavage was obtained from healthy current smokers (n = 76) before smoking cessation, after 6 months of smoking cessation (n = 29), after 1 year of smoking cessation (n = 22) and from 10 healthy never smokers. SLPI, CC16, elafin and HBD-2 levels were measured in sputum and nasal lavage supernatants by commercially available ELISA kits. Results  Sputum SLPI and CC-16 levels were increased in healthy smokers before smoking cessation versus never-smokers (p = 0.005 and p = 0.08 respectively). SLPI and CC16 levels did not differ before and 6 months after smoking cessation (p = 0.118 and p = 0.543 respectively), neither before and 1 year after smoking cessation (p = 0.363 and p = 0.470 respectively). Nasal lavage SLPI was decreased 12 months after smoking cessation (p = 0.033). Nasal lavage elafin levels were increased in healthy smokers before smoking cessation versus never-smokers (p = 0.007), but there were no changes 6 months and 1 year after smoking cessation. Conclusions  Only nasal lavage SLPI decrease after 1 year after smoking cessation. We may speculate that there is an ongoing inflammatory process stimulating the production of counter-regulating proteins in the airways of healthy ex-smokers.
Journal: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - BMC Pulm Med , vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2011
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