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Relationship of ground level enhancements with solar, interplanetary and geophysical parameters

Relationship of ground level enhancements with solar, interplanetary and geophysical parameters,10.1007/s10509-010-0473-0,Astrophysics and Space Scien

Relationship of ground level enhancements with solar, interplanetary and geophysical parameters  
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Cosmic rays registered by Neutron Monitor on the surface of the Earth are believed to originate from outer space, and sometimes also from the exotic objects of the Sun. Whilst the intensities of the cosmic rays are observed to be enhanced with sudden, sharp and short-lived increases, they are termed as ground level enhancements (GLEs). They are the occurrences in solar cosmic ray intensity variations on short-term basis, so different solar factors erupted from the Sun can be responsible for causing them. In this context, an attempt has been made to determine quantitative relationships of the GLEs having peak increase >5% with simultaneous solar, interplanetary and geophysical factors from 1997 through 2006, thereby searching the responsible factors which seem to cause the enhancements. Results suggest that GLE peaks might be caused by solar energetic particle fluxes and solar flares. The proton fluxes which seemed to cause GLE peaks were also supported by their corresponding fluences. For most of the flares, the time integrated rising portion of the flare emission refers to the strong portion of X-ray fluxes which might be the concern to GLE peak. On an average, GLE peak associated X-ray flux (0.71×10−4 w/m2) is much stronger than GLE background associated X-ray flux (0.11×10−6 w/m2). It gives a general consent that the GLE peak is presumably caused by the solar flare. Coronal mass ejection alone does not seem to cause GLE. Coronal mass ejection presumably causes geomagnetic disturbances characterized by geomagnetic indices and polarities of interplanetary magnetic fields.
Journal: Astrophysics and Space Science - ASTROPHYS SPACE SCI , vol. 331, no. 2, pp. 469-484, 2011
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