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Influence of Surface Segregation on Wetting of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) Series and Pb-Containing Solder Alloys

Influence of Surface Segregation on Wetting of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) Series and Pb-Containing Solder Alloys,10.1007/s11664-011-1725-7,Journal of Electronic M

Influence of Surface Segregation on Wetting of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) Series and Pb-Containing Solder Alloys   (Citations: 1)
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Wetting of Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) series solder alloys to solid substrates is strongly influenced by surface segregation of low-level bulk impurities in the alloys. We report in situ and real-time Auger electron spectroscopy measurements of SAC alloy surface compositions as a function of temperature as the alloys are taken through the melting point. A dramatic increase in the amount of surface C (and frequently O) is observed with temperature, and in some cases the alloy surface is nearly 80 at.% C at the melting point. The C originates from low-level impurities incorporated during alloy synthesis and inhibits wetting because C acts as a blocking layer to reaction between the alloy and substrate. A similar phenomenon has been observed over a wide range of (SAC and non-SAC) alloys synthesized by a variety of techniques. That solder alloy surfaces at melting have a radically different composition from the bulk uncovers a key variable that helps to explain the wide variability in contact angles reported in previous studies of wetting and adhesion.
Journal: Journal of Electronic Materials - J ELECTRON MATER , vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 2093-2104, 2011
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