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Global N removal by freshwater aquatic systems using a spatially distributed, within-basin approach

Global N removal by freshwater aquatic systems using a spatially distributed, within-basin approach,10.1029/2007GB002963,Global Biogeochemical Cycles,

Global N removal by freshwater aquatic systems using a spatially distributed, within-basin approach  
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We explored the role of aquatic systems in the global N cycle using a spatially distributed, within-basin, aquatic nitrogen (N) removal model, implemented within the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES-N). The model predicts mean annual total N (TN) removal by small rivers (with drainage areas from 2.6–1000 km2), large rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, using a 30′ latitude × longitude river network to route and process material from continental source areas to the coastal zone. Mean annual aquatic TN removal (for the mid-1990s time period) is determined by the distributions of aquatic TN inputs, mean annual hydrological characteristics, and biological activity. Model-predicted TN concentrations at basin mouths corresponded well with observations (median relative error = −12%, interquartile range of relative error = 85%), an improvement over assumptions of uniform aquatic removal across basins. Removal by aquatic systems globally accounted for 14% of total N inputs to continental surfaces, but represented 53% of inputs to aquatic systems. Integrated aquatic removal was similar in small rivers (16.5% of inputs), large rivers (13.6%), and lakes (15.2%), while large reservoirs were less important (5.2%). Bias related to runoff suggests improvements are needed in nonpoint N input estimates and/or aquatic biological activity. The within-basin approach represented by FrAMES-N will improve understanding of the freshwater nutrient flux response to anthropogenic change at global scales.
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