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Structure and Function of Desmosomes

Structure and Function of Desmosomes,10.1016/S0074-7696(07)64003-0,International Review of Cytology-a Survey of Cell Biology,Bastian Holthöfer,Reinhar

Structure and Function of Desmosomes   (Citations: 23)
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Desmosomes are prominent adhesion sites that are tightly associated with the cytoplasmic intermediate filament cytoskeleton providing mechanical stability in epithelia and also in several nonepithelial tissues such as cardiac muscle and meninges. They are unique in terms of ultrastructural appearance and molecular composition with cell type–specific variations. The dynamic assembly properties of desmosomes are important prerequisites for the acquisition and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Disturbance of this equilibrium therefore not only compromises mechanical resilience but also affects many other tissue functions as becomes evident in various experimental scenarios and multiple diseases.
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    • ...Desmosomes are symmetric multiprotein assemblies with their halves interconnected to transmit forces between adjacent cells (reviews in [19, 21, 28])...
    • ...In the heart, desmoglein 2 (Dsg2) and desmocollin 2 are by far the most prominent, if not sole desmosomal cadherins [28]...
    • ...It binds to plakophilins and mediates intermediate filament attachment to desmosomal junctions [19, 21, 28]...
    • ...EC2 domains, which are believed to participate in homoand heterophilic desmosomal cadherin interactions (Fig. 1b; cf. [28, 59])...
    • ...Most importantly, the overall shortening of the extracellular domains in combination with the loss of calcium binding, which is presumably involved in stabilization of the EC domains [42, 44, 52], is expected to lead to reduced EC domain overlap for homophilic cis and trans interactions [7, 10, 28, 52, 59]...
    • ...Furthermore, loss of desmosomal cadherins and associated proteins interferes with wnt/b-catenin signaling [18, 28], which has been implicated in DCM [26]...

    Claudia A. Kruscheet al. Desmoglein 2 mutant mice develop cardiac fibrosis and dilation

    • ...Desmosomes connect the intermediate filaments of the neighboring cells (Huber 2003; Holthöfer et al. 2007)...

    Maja Jeršeet al. Apoptosis in the developing human heart resembles apoptosis in epithel...

    • ...(4) The plaques of desmosomes, the cadherins of which can project into (and even through) the mostly prominent and dense plaque, also contain plakoglobin, but in addition plakophilin-2 or combinations of two plakophilins, together with the special plaque protein, desmoplakin (for reviews, see the aforementioned anthologies and Holthöfer et al. 2007; Waschke 2008)...

    Werner W. Frankeet al. The junctions that don’t fit the scheme: special symmetrical cell-cell...

    • ...This structural perturbation could reflect modifications of assembly and/or stability of the desmosomal-protein complex in the absence of PrPc, as described for invalidation or mutation of other desmosome-associated proteins, such as desmoglein, plakoglobin or plakophilin families, in murine models or human pathologies (for review, see [47])...

    Etienne Morelet al. The Cellular Prion Protein PrPc Is Involved in the Proliferation of Ep...

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