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Upregulation of cardiomyocyte ribonucleotide reductase increases intracellular 2 deoxy-ATP, contractility, and relaxation

Upregulation of cardiomyocyte ribonucleotide reductase increases intracellular 2 deoxy-ATP, contractility, and relaxation,10.1016/j.yjmcc.2011.08.026,

Upregulation of cardiomyocyte ribonucleotide reductase increases intracellular 2 deoxy-ATP, contractility, and relaxation  
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We have previously demonstrated that substitution of ATP with 2 deoxy-ATP (dATP) increased the magnitude and rate of force production at all levels of Ca2+-mediated activation in demembranated cardiac muscle. In the current study we hypothesized that cellular [dATP] could be increased by viral-mediated overexpression of the ribonucleotide reductase (Rrm1 and Rrm2) complex, which would increase contractility of adult rat cardiomyocytes. Cell length and ratiometric (Fura2) Ca2+ fluorescence were monitored by video microscopy. At 0.5Hz stimulation, the extent of shortening was increased ~40% and maximal rate of shortening was increased ~80% in cardiomyocytes overexpressing Rrm1+Rrm2 as compared to non-transduced cardiomyocytes. The maximal rate of relaxation was also increased ~150% with Rrm1+Rrm2 overexpression, resulting in decreased time to 50% relaxation over non-transduced cardiomyocytes. These differences were even more dramatic when compared to cardiomyocytes expressing GFP-only. Interestingly, Rrm1+Rrm2 overexpression had no effect on minimal or maximal intracellular [Ca2+], indicating increased contractility is primarily due to increased myofilament activity without altering Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, functional potentiation was maintained with Rrm1+Rrm2 overexpression as stimulation frequency was increased (1Hz and 2Hz). HPLC analysis indicated cellular [dATP] was increased by approximately 10-fold following transduction, becoming ~1.5% of the adenine nucleotide pool. Furthermore, 2% dATP was sufficient to significantly increase crossbridge binding and contractile force during sub-maximal Ca2+ activation in demembranated cardiac muscle. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of directly targeting the actin–myosin chemomechanical crossbridge cycle to enhance cardiac contractility and relaxation without affecting minimal or maximal Ca2+. This article is part of a Special issue entitled "Possible Editorial".
Journal: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology - J MOL CELL CARDIOL , vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 894-901, 2011
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