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Temperature dependence of retention of energetic deuterium and carbon simultaneously implanted into tungsten

Temperature dependence of retention of energetic deuterium and carbon simultaneously implanted into tungsten,10.1016/j.jnucmat.2010.12.111,Journal of

Temperature dependence of retention of energetic deuterium and carbon simultaneously implanted into tungsten  
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The simultaneous implantation of 10keV C+ and 3.0keV D2+ into tungsten was carried out at elevated temperatures to establish the retention mechanism of energetic deuterium and carbon. Thermal desorption spectroscopy showed that the deuterium retention obviously decreased as the implantation temperature increased. All the desorption stages disappeared when the implantation was performed at 673K, indicating no deuterium trapping as C–D bonds was processed in this temperature. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and glow discharge-optical emission spectroscopy showed that a mixed carbon layer had been formed during the implantation, resulting from the carbon deposition and accumulation near the surface of tungsten during the implantation. The carbon layer would enhance the chemical sputtering with deuterium and reduce the deuterium retention, as the implantation temperature increases. During discussion, a simple retention mechanism has been proposed, which shows the importance of implantation temperature.
Journal: Journal of Nuclear Materials - J NUCL MATER , vol. 417, no. 1, pp. 555-558, 2011
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