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III–V on silicon: Observation of gallium phosphide anti-phase disorder by low-energy electron microscopy

III–V on silicon: Observation of gallium phosphide anti-phase disorder by low-energy electron microscopy,10.1016/j.susc.2011.05.002,Surface Science,He

III–V on silicon: Observation of gallium phosphide anti-phase disorder by low-energy electron microscopy  
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The formation of anti-phase disorder is a major obstacle in the heteroepitaxy of III–V semiconductors on silicon. For an investigation of the anti-phase domain (APD) structure of GaP/Si(100) samples on mesoscopic length scales, we applied dark-field imaging in a low-energy electron microscope (LEEM) to thin GaP films grown on Si(100) substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). A contamination-free transfer of the samples from the MOVPE ambient to the ultra-high vacuum chamber of the microscope ensured that the atomically well-ordered, P-rich (2×2)/c(4×2) reconstruction of the surface was preserved. Mutually perpendicular oriented domains of the characteristic GaP(100) reconstruction identify the APDs in the GaP film at the surface and enabled us to achieve high contrast LEEM images. Striped patterns of APDs reflect the regular terrasse structure of the two-domain Si(100)(2×1) substrate far away from defects. APDs in the proximity of the defects have larger lateral extensions and are arranged in target pattern-like structures around the defects. In contrast to transmission electron microscopy, which was also applied in a specific dark-field mode for comparison, the characterization of anti-phase disorder by LEEM is non-destructive, does not require elaborate sample preparation, and addresses extended length scales.
Journal: Surface Science - SURFACE SCI , vol. 605, no. 15, pp. L38-L41, 2011
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