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Physiological, anatomical and phenotypical effects of a cadmium stress in different-aged chlorophyllian organs of Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC (Haloragaceae)

Physiological, anatomical and phenotypical effects of a cadmium stress in different-aged chlorophyllian organs of Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC (Halor

Physiological, anatomical and phenotypical effects of a cadmium stress in different-aged chlorophyllian organs of Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC (Haloragaceae)  
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Cadmium stress on aquatic macrophytes is currently few documented and no studies were conducted on clonal populations in controlled conditions. Our aim is to assess the effect of cadmium stress on Myriophyllum alterniflorum from physiological, anatomical and phenotypical parameters among different developmental stages. An experiment was carried out in order to test the hypothesis that a high external dose of Cd affects differentially young and old leaves of watermilfoil in terms of (1) anatomical and biological parameters, (2) physiological parameters and (3) that these differences result from the overall level of oxidative stress. Cadmium stress strongly affects the morphology of chlorophyllian organs and decreases the xylem-vessel number and diameter in matures leaves. Moreover we first report a new cadmium-induced anatomical feature: a double endodermis with separated layers which limits water and gaseous losses in mature leaves. From a physiological point of view, cadmium induces at all developmental stages a reduction in chlorophyll contents, a malondialdehyde production indicating a drastic lipoperoxydation, an enhanced production of reactive-oxygen-species scavengers (free proline and in lesser parts carotenoids) and a perturbation in hydric status in M. alterniflorum clones. The results obtained support the initial hypotheses. Indeed, it should be noted that cadmium stress mainly disturbs mature-leave structure and function, increasing their ageing and senescence. This mechanism probably contributes to limit the cadmium impact on young and growing parts as cadmium is known to preferentially accumulate in senescent leaves.
Journal: Environmental and Experimental Botany - ENVIRON EXP BOT , vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 174-181, 2011
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