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Phosphorylation of antiviral and endogenous nucleotides to di- and triphosphates by guanosine monophosphate kinase

Phosphorylation of antiviral and endogenous nucleotides to di- and triphosphates by guanosine monophosphate kinase,10.1016/j.bcp.2010.09.005,Biochemic

Phosphorylation of antiviral and endogenous nucleotides to di- and triphosphates by guanosine monophosphate kinase   (Citations: 1)
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Many fraudulent nucleosides including the antivirals acyclovir (ACV) and ganciclovir (GCV) must be metabolized to triphosphates to be active. Cyclopropavir (CPV) is a newer, related guanosine nucleoside analog that is active against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in vitro and in vivo. We have previously demonstrated that CPV is phosphorylated to its monophosphate (CPV-MP) by the HCMV pUL97 kinase. Consequently, like other nucleoside analogs phosphorylated by viral kinases, CPV most likely must be converted to a triphosphate (CPV-TP) in order to elicit antiviral activity. Once formed by pUL97, we hypothesized that guanosine monophosphate kinase (GMPK) is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of CPV-MP to CPV-DP. Incubation of CPV-MP with GMPK resulted in the formation of CPV-DP and, surprisingly, CPV-TP. When CPV-DP was incubated with GMPK, a time-dependent increase in CPV-TP occurred corresponding to a decrease in CPV-DP thereby demonstrating that CPV-DP is a substrate for GMPK. Substrate specificity experiments revealed that GMP, dGMP, GDP, and dGDP are substrates for GMPK. In contrast, GMPK recognized only acyclovir and ganciclovir monophosphates as substrates, not their diphosphates. Kinetic studies demonstrated that CPV-DP has a KM value of 45±15μM. We were, however, unable to determine the KM value for CPV-MP directly, but a mathematical model of experimental data gave a theoretical KM value for CPV-MP of 332±60μM. We conclude that unlike many other antivirals, cyclopropavir can be converted to its active triphosphate by a single cellular enzyme once the monophosphate is formed by a virally encoded kinase.
Journal: Biochemical Pharmacology - BIOCHEM PHARMACOL , vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 43-49, 2011
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