Lodging yield penalties as affected by breeding in Mediterranean wheats

Lodging yield penalties as affected by breeding in Mediterranean wheats,10.1016/j.fcr.2011.02.004,Fuel and Energy Abstracts,Martín M. Acreche,Gustavo

Lodging yield penalties as affected by breeding in Mediterranean wheats  
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Stem lodging, a permanent displacement of cereal stems which may reduce wheat yields significantly, affects wheat crops in both developed and developing countries, mainly under high-yielding conditions. Although breeding has decreased these losses by reducing the likelihood of the plant lodging through reduced height (mainly by the introgression of dwarfing genes), lodging continues to affect wheat yields. We aimed to quantify how wheat breeding has modified the sensitivity of yield to lodging, identifying physiological causes for yield reductions. Two field experiments were carried out in Mediterranean Spain during the 2006/07 and 2007/08 growing seasons. The first season two genotypes (Aragon 03 and ID-2151) and two lodging treatments (control and lodged near anthesis) were analysed. The second season four genotypes (Aragon 03, Estrella, Anza and ID-2151) and three lodging treatments (control, lodged from either jointing to maturity or anthesis to maturity) were imposed. In addition, in the 2007/08 experiment the source–sink ratios of five representative spikes of each plot were modified through hand trimming all spikelets from one side of each spike soon after anthesis. Yield losses due to early lodging were reduced by wheat breeding: yield penalties in the oldest and newest genotypes were 61% and 43% (mean values of both lodging treatments), respectively while it was 57% in intermediate cultivars (mean value of both lodging treatments and cultivars). Lodging decreased both the number of grains per m2 and the average grain weight (AGW). The decrease of the number of grains per m2 was associated with reductions in the crop growth, while the AGW loss seemed related to both a reduction of the availability of assimilates to fill grains and a direct effect on grain size potential. Lodged plants exhibited stronger source-limitation during grain filling than those un-lodged, while the response of the grain weight to sink-strength reductions in lodged plants was very similar to that in the un-trimmed controls, indicating that grain filling in un-lodged and in strongly lodged canopies was similarly balanced in terms of source–sink ratios.
Journal: Fuel and Energy Abstracts , vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 40-48, 2011
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