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Proteasome alterations during adipose differentiation and aging: links to impaired adipocyte differentiation and development of oxidative stress

Proteasome alterations during adipose differentiation and aging: links to impaired adipocyte differentiation and development of oxidative stress,10.10

Proteasome alterations during adipose differentiation and aging: links to impaired adipocyte differentiation and development of oxidative stress  
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Intracellular proteins are degraded by a number of proteases, including the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway (UPP). Impairments in the UPP occur during the aging of a variety of tissues, although little is known in regards to age-related alterations to the UPP during the aging of adipose tissue. The UPP is known to be involved in regulating the differentiation of a variety of cell types, although the potential changes in the UPP during adipose differentiation have not been fully elucidated. How the UPP is altered in aging adipose tissue and adipocyte differentiation and the effects of proteasome inhibition on adipocyte homeostasis and differentiation are critical issues to elucidate experimentally. Adipogenesis continues throughout the life of adipose tissue, with continual differentiation of preadipocytes essential to maintaining tissue function during aging, and UPP alterations in mature adipocytes are likely to directly modulate adipose function during aging. In this study we demonstrate that aging induces alterations in the activity and expression of principal components of the UPP. Additionally, we show that multiple changes in the UPP occur during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. In vitro data link observed UPP alterations to increased levels of oxidative stress and altered adipose biology relevant to both aging and differentiation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that changes in the UPP occur in response to adipose aging and adipogenesis and strongly suggest that proteasome inhibition is sufficient to decrease adipose differentiation, as well as increasing oxidative stress in mature adipocytes, both of which probably promote deleterious effects on adipose aging.
Journal: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - FREE RADICAL BIOL MED , vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 1727-1735, 2011
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