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Comparison of two extraction procedures for the assessment of sediment genotoxicity: Implication of polar organic compounds

Comparison of two extraction procedures for the assessment of sediment genotoxicity: Implication of polar organic compounds,10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.05

Comparison of two extraction procedures for the assessment of sediment genotoxicity: Implication of polar organic compounds  
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Four sediment samples (Vaïne Airport VA, Vaïne Center VC, Vaïne North VN and Reference North RN) were collected in the Berre lagoon (France). Sediments were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by use of pressurized fluid extraction with a mixture of hexane/dichloromethane followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection analysis. Organic pollutants were also extracted with two solvents for subsequent evaluation of their genotoxicity: a hexane/dichloromethane mixture intended to select non-polar compounds such as PAHs, and 2-propanol intended to select polar contaminants. Sediment extracts were assessed by the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98+S9 mix and YG1041±S9 mix. Extracts were also assessed for their DNA-damaging activity and their clastogenic/aneugenic properties by the comet assay and the micronucleus test with Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The PAH concentrations were 611ngg−1dw, 1341ngg−1 dw, 613ngg−1dw and 482ngg−1dw for VA, VC, VN and RN, respectively. Two genotoxic profiles were observed, depending on the extraction procedure. All the non-polar extracts were mutagenic for TA98+S9 mix, and VA, VC, VN sediment samples exerted a significant DNA-damaging and clastogenic activity in the presence of S9 mix. All the polar extracts appeared mutagenic for TA98+S9 mix and YG104±S9 mix, and VA, VC, VN were genotoxic and clastogenic both with and without S9 mix. These results indicate that the genotoxic and mutagenic activities mainly originated from PAHs in the non-polar extracts, while these activities came from other genotoxic contaminants, such as aromatic amines and nitroarenes, in the polar extracts. This study focused on the important role of uncharacterized polar contaminants such as nitro-PAHs or aromatic amines in the global mutagenicity of sediments. The necessity to use appropriate extraction solvents to accurately evaluate the genotoxic hazard of aquatic sediments is also highlighted.
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