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Genomic analysis reveals Nairobi sheep disease virus to be highly diverse and present in both Africa, and in India in the form of the Ganjam virus variant

Genomic analysis reveals Nairobi sheep disease virus to be highly diverse and present in both Africa, and in India in the form of the Ganjam virus var

Genomic analysis reveals Nairobi sheep disease virus to be highly diverse and present in both Africa, and in India in the form of the Ganjam virus variant  
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Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) virus, the prototype tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae is associated with acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats in East and Central Africa. The closely related Ganjam virus found in India is associated with febrile illness in humans and disease in livestock. The complete S, M and L segment sequences of Ganjam and NSD virus and partial sequence analysis of Ganjam viral RNA genome S, M and L segments encoding regions (396bp, 701bp and 425bp) of the viral nucleocapsid (N), glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and L polymerase (L) proteins, respectively, was carried out for multiple Ganjam virus isolates obtained from 1954 to 2002 and from various regions of India.M segments of NSD and Ganjam virus encode a large ORF for the glycoprotein precursor (GPC), (1627 and 1624 amino acids in length, respectively) and their L segments encode a very large L polymerase (3991 amino acids). The complete S, M and L segments of NSD and Ganjam viruses were more closely related to one another than to other characterized nairoviruses, and no evidence of reassortment was found. However, the NSD and Ganjam virus complete M segment differed by 22.90% and 14.70%, for nucleotide and amino acid respectively, and the complete L segment nucleotide and protein differing by 9.90% and 2.70%, respectively among themselves. Ganjam and NSD virus, complete S segment differed by 9.40–10.40% and 3.2–4.10 for nucleotide and proteins while among Ganjam viruses 0.0–6.20% and 0.0–1.4%, variation was found for nucleotide and amino acids.Ganjam virus isolates differed by up to 17% and 11% at the nucleotide level for the partial S and L gene fragments, respectively, with less variation observed at the deduced amino acid level (10.5 and 2%, S and L, respectively). However, the virus partial M gene fragment (which encodes the hypervariable mucin-like domain) of these viruses differed by as much as 56% at the nucleotide level. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequence differences suggests considerable mixing and movement of Ganjam virus strains within India, with no clear relationship between genetic lineages and virus geographic origin or year of isolation. Surprisingly, NSD virus does not represent a distinct lineage, but appears as a variant with other Ganjam virus among NSD virus group.
Journal: Infection Genetics and Evolution - INFECT GENET EVOL , vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1111-1120, 2011
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