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The multiple functions of cytochrome c and their regulation in life and death decisions of the mammalian cell: From respiration to apoptosis

The multiple functions of cytochrome c and their regulation in life and death decisions of the mammalian cell: From respiration to apoptosis,10.1016/j

The multiple functions of cytochrome c and their regulation in life and death decisions of the mammalian cell: From respiration to apoptosis   (Citations: 5)
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Cytochrome c (Cytc) is essential in mitochondrial electron transport and intrinsic type II apoptosis. Mammalian Cytc also scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) under healthy conditions, produces ROS with the co-factor p66Shc, and oxidizes cardiolipin during apoptosis. The recent finding that Cytc is phosphorylated in vivo underpins a model for the pivotal role of Cytc regulation in making life and death decisions. An apoptotic sequence of events is proposed involving changes in Cytc phosphorylation, increased ROS via increased mitochondrial membrane potentials or the p66Shc pathway, and oxidation of cardiolipin by Cytc followed by its release from the mitochondria. Cytc regulation in respiration and cell death is discussed in a human disease context including neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and sepsis.
Journal: Mitochondrion , vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 369-381, 2011
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