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On the Synchronization of Physical-Layer Network Coding

On the Synchronization of Physical-Layer Network Coding,10.1109/ITW.2006.322848,Shengli Zhang,Soung-Chang Liew,Patrick P. LAM

On the Synchronization of Physical-Layer Network Coding   (Citations: 10)
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When data are transmitted in a wireless network, they reach the target receiver as well as other receivers in the neighborhood. Rather than a blessing, this attribute is treated as an interference-inducing nuisance in most wireless networks today (e.g., IEEE 802.11). Physical-layer network coding (PNC), however, has been proposed to take advantage of this attribute. Unlike "conventional" network coding which performs coding arithmetic on digital bit streams after they are decoded, PNC makes use of the additive nature of simultaneously arriving electromagnetic (EM) waves and applies the network coding arithmetic at the physical layer. As a result, the destructive effect of interference is eliminated and the capacity of networks is boosted significantly. A key requirement of PNC is synchronization among nodes, which has not been addressed previously. This is the focus of this paper. Specifically, we investigate the impact of imperfect synchronization (i.e., finite synchronization errors) on PNC. We show that with BPSK modulation, PNC still yields significantly higher capacity than straightforward network coding when there are synchronization errors. And interestingly, this remains to be so even in the extreme case where synchronization is not performed at all.
Published in 2006.
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    • ...There has been a great deal of interest in the idea behind this example and many powerful extensions and generalizations have been developed for fading channels [55]–[59], asynchronous scenarios [60]–[62], codedivision multiple access [63], and practical deployments [64]...

    Bobak Nazeret al. Reliable Physical Layer Network Coding

    • ...Many previous works (e.g., [1], [3], [4]) found that symbol misalignment and carrier-phase offset will result in appreciable performance penalties...
    • ...The study of BPSK PNC in [1], [3], for example, made use of suboptimal decoding methods at the relay for the asynchronous PNC case...
    • ...We find that the BER performance penalty can be reduced from 3 dB (using the method in [1], [3]) to less than 0.5 dB (using our method here) for the worst case...
    • ...Case 1 is the perfectly synchronized case studied in [1]; Case 2, in [3]; and Case 3, in [3], [7], [8]...
    • ...Case 1 is the perfectly synchronized case studied in [1]; Case 2, in [3]; and Case 3, in [3], [7], [8]...
    • ...Refs. [1] and [3] argued that the largest BER performance penalty is 3 dB for BPSK modulation (for both phase and symbol asynchronies)...
    • ...Our simulations yield the following findings: • For BPSK, the 3 dB BER performance penalty due to phase or symbol asynchrony using the decoding methods in [1], [3] is reduced to less than 0.5 dB with our method here...

    Lu Luet al. Optimal Decoding Algorithm for Asynchronous Physical-Layer Network Cod...

    • ...Except for these DSTCs and DSFCs, some binary-field coding schemes are proposed in [72, 73]...
    • ...BPSK signal is considered in [72], and the penalties of time and frequency synchronization errors are analyzed...

    HuiMing Wanget al. Asynchronous cooperative communication systems: A survey on signal des...

    • ...Under an assumption that bit-level synchronization is achieved, physical-layer network coding was introduced for a two-way relay channel in [5] and [6]...

    Mugen Penget al. Cooperative Network Coding With MIMO Transmission in Wireless Decode-a...

    • ...degrade the performance, as shown in [5], [7]...
    • ...For PLNC networks, [5] analyzed the impact of asynchronous but no treatment is given and [15] proposed a channel coding scheme for asynchronous PLNC networks...

    Hui-Ming Wanget al. A Linear Analog Network Coding for Asynchronous Two-Way Relay Networks

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