Prospective gamma-ray propagation models and comparisons to metamaterial models
Astronomical observations of gamma-ray bursts can exhibit dispersive behavior where high-energy gamma rays arrive significantly later than low-energy photons. Although the under- lying mechanisms for the dispersion are not fully understood, a polynomial model has been proposed for modeling the apparent frequency-dependent photon velocity. The present work considers the impact of this dispersion model on the Helmholtz equation. The result is an extended form of the Helmholtz equation, where additional terms are used to model observed dispersion. The pro- posed set of equations closely resembles one type of metamaterial model, and therefore exhibits similar behavior. Comparisons are drawn between the gamma-ray models and similar metamaterial models that exhibit right-handed behavior at low frequencies and left-handed behavior at high frequencies. Finally, the overall approach provides a flexible modeling framework that can be adapted as new gamma-ray data become available. or stop band. Therefore, these corresponding metamaterial models offer additional insight to the behavior of the proposed gamma-ray models. In the next section, the proposed gamma-ray propagation models are first developed, based on empirical data from recent gamma-ray burst data. Then, a similar metamaterial model is presented in the subsequent section. Further insight to the behavior of the proposed gamma-ray models is drawn from these metamaterial models.

Published in 2011.