3D visual modeling of hydrothermal chimneys using a rotary laser scanning system

3D visual modeling of hydrothermal chimneys using a rotary laser scanning system,10.1109/UT.2011.5774140,Takeshi Nakatani,Shuhao Li,Tamaki Ura,Adrian

3D visual modeling of hydrothermal chimneys using a rotary laser scanning system  
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Hydrothermal chimneys are indicators of hydrothermal activity and therefore important in ocean research. Because of the complex terrain and suspended solids in the water around hydrothermal chimneys, it is difficult to measure them with traditional methods. In this paper we propose an innovative method to measure the shape and color of them by a rotary laser scanning (RLS) system. By combining multiple scans taken from different angles and extracting the color information from the surface of hydrothermal chimneys, we can create visual color models of them as described in figure 1. The proposed method was implemented during sea experiments in Kagoshima Bay and we were successful in reconstructing the model of a hydrothermal chimney in post processing. I. INTRODUCTION From a perspective of ocean resource exploitation and marine ecology protection, the research of the seabed is becoming more and more important. In recent years, hydrothermal chimneys in hydrothermal areas are attracting ocean researcher's attention. Such chimneys are formed by spurts of hot water, which contain traces of metal. They are important observation targets to research about the mechanism and activity of hydrothermal areas. Chemosynthetic communities around chimneys are also scientifically important for chemical and biological research in deep oceans. To study the growth process of chimneys, visual investigation is necessary along with the acquisition of the three dimensional shape. Conventional approaches for bathymetry survey are based on sonar (1) or stereo vision (2). Although sonar is widely used in measuring the seabed and detecting shoals of fish, because of suspended solids in the water and the complex terrain around hydrothermal chimneys, multipath reflections occur when carrying out acoustic range measurements, thereby degrading the accuracy. The color information cannot be obtained by sonar, therefore such measurement do not give any information about the distribution of chemosynthetic communities. When using stereo cameras, corresponding points from two different images have to be identified and matched, which is difficult due to the uniform color on the surface of chimneys. Recently, the method using a camera and laser as one set (3) is used for generating D reconstruction of the seabed, but it is not suitable for measuring very steep slopes and overhangs, often encountered at chimneys. In addition, as GPS cannot be used under water, there are position errors due to drift in sensor measurement of the platform during data acquisition, which decrease the accuracy of reconstruction. Therefore, we propose a new method to observe hydrothermal chimneys from the side that can: �L Measure the underwater objects with high resolution �LDecrease the effect of position drift by reducing the required time for recording the data �LExtract the color information from the surface of the
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