Academic
Publications
Cost-efficient integration of electric vehicles with the power grid by means of smart charging strategies and integrated on-board chargers

Cost-efficient integration of electric vehicles with the power grid by means of smart charging strategies and integrated on-board chargers,10.1109/EEE

Cost-efficient integration of electric vehicles with the power grid by means of smart charging strategies and integrated on-board chargers  
BibTex | RIS | RefWorks Download
Electric vehicles (EVs) are new type of additional load on the power grid. The change of the load profile depends on the penetration level of EVs as well as on the used charging strategies. State-of-the-art charging strategies such as dumb charging and dual tariff charging are not the appropriate solutions for charging EVs. Both strategies causes peak demands which could induce violations of the power grid constrains. Hence, smart charging is necessary to reduce peak demands and to realise valley-filling. Furthermore smart charging in many cases is based on a novel smart power grid infrastructure. The major objectives of smart charging are the minimisation of the electricity costs of consumers and the cost-efficient update of the power grid infrastructure. In addition, all EVs have to be equipped with a bidirectional on-board charger which enables vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capability. This type of charger consists of a combined AC/DC rectifier and DC/AC inverter. The most efficient solution is to integrate the charger in the already existing propulsion machine inverter. The major objectives of an integrated on-board charger are the minimisations of manufacturing costs, maintenance costs and weight of the EV. In this paper several smart charging strategies as well as charger topologies are presented and assessed. Index Terms—AC/DC rectifier, DC/AC inverter, bidirectional charger, battery charger, road vehicle electric propulsion, smart power grid, smart charging, vehicle-to-grid, demand-side management, valley filling In the future, combustion engine based vehicles will be replaced by plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to slow down climate change impacts. High fuel costs as well as carbon dioxide emission limitations will additionally push this transformation. Hence, automotive manufacturers and power supply companies will face new technical as well as economical challenges in the next few years. This paper focuses on the cost-efficient integration of EVs with the power grid using smart charging strategies and integrated on-board chargers. State-of-the-art charging strategies such as dumb charging and dual tariff charging based on simple time-of-use (TOU) pricing are not the appropriate solutions for charging EVs. Strategies based on dumb charging assume that electricity costs are the same during the whole day. Hence, EVs start charging immediately when they arrive somewhere, trying to fully recharge their batteries (10). Dual tariff charging is a well-known approach to shift loads of households from day to night. Therefore the electricity costs are low during the night and high throughout the rest of the day. Several research groups (5) (6) (7) (10) have shown that both strategies used for charging EVs causes peak demands such as morning and evening peaks. These demands could lead to violations of power grid constrains. In these studies and simulations, profiles of other loads, different areas (e. g. residential, commercial, industry) and different seasons of the year have also been considered (5) (6). Hence, smart charging is necessary to reduce peak demands and to realise valley- filling. In the majority of cases a novel smart power grid infrastructure is also mandatory. Smart charging and smart grids enable the minimisation of consumers electricity costs as well as the cost-efficient update of the existing power grid infrastructure.
Cumulative Annual
View Publication
The following links allow you to view full publications. These links are maintained by other sources not affiliated with Microsoft Academic Search.