Optimal signal discrimination in a Low signal-to-noise ratio environment

Optimal signal discrimination in a Low signal-to-noise ratio environment,10.1109/ISCAS.2011.5937758,Thiago Ciodaro

Optimal signal discrimination in a Low signal-to-noise ratio environment  
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Energy measurements from calorimeter informa- tion are very important for particle detection in high-energy physics experiments. Calorimeters have a very good energy reso- lution, but some interesting particles produce a signal rather close to electronic noise values. This work presents the development of optimal signal discriminators to be implemented in a low signal- to-noise environment. They use signals from a highly segmented calorimeter (TileCal), which was built in the context of the ATLAS experiment for the Large Hadron Collider, operating at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). I. INTRODUCTION Signal discrimination under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions is required in many applications. In particular, in high-energy particle collider experiments, some subatomic particles produced in particle collisions interact with matter in the detectors such that the produced electrical signals are severely affected by noise. Robust detection strategies must be employed to correctly separate the interesting signal from the background noise (1). ATLAS (2) is a particle detector operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. In order to extract interest- ing signatures characteristic of the particle collision products at LHC, ATLAS is divided into three subsystems: the inner detector, responsible for tracking particles, the calorimeters, responsible for the energy measurements (3) and the muon spectrometer, responsible for muon identification and tracking. The readout of the ATLAS detector produces 1.5 MB of information per event. Considering the LHC's design collision rate (40 MHz), the total data rate is 60 TB/s (4). The research focus being on well known physics signatures, an online filtering scheme was conceived, referred to as the trigger system. The ATLAS online trigger system is imple- mented in three cascaded levels, each possessing its own maximum event rate and latency time (time elapsed between the information arrival and the trigger decision). In particular, the first level (L1) is addressed in this work. The L1 trigger is based only on the compacted information from the calorimeter and the muon spectrometer (4). It is fully implemented in hardware and it must reduce the event rate from 40 MHz to 100 kHz, taking no more than 2.5 s
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