Underwater sensing and communication platform

Underwater sensing and communication platform,10.1109/Oceans-Spain.2011.6003503,Chemical Communications,Kui Zhang,Wouter van Kleunen,Nirvana Meratnia,

Underwater sensing and communication platform  
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Currently the interest in underwater acoustic com- munication is growing rapidly as more and more underwater monitoring systems are deployed around the world. In order to cope with the challenges of the complex underwater acoustic channel many node platforms, networking protocols, and signal processing algorithms have been proposed. However, many of these protocols are still in the simulation stage and have not been completely implemented and used in real settings. In this paper we propose a research prototype underwater sensing and communication platform that enables developers to easily deploy their systems and check and update their protocols. I. INTRODUCTION Large size and high cost in terms of purchase, installation, and maintenance are obstacles towards an easy and widespread deployment of underwater monitoring systems. In addition, the tendency of high power consumption of transmitters as well as the need of large size battery packs and frequent battery shifts and operational costs greatly contribute to this issue. The high hardware cost makes the current underwater monitoring networks also sparse. As a result, existing sensor networks in the radio frequency domain do not map very well to these networks. Therefore, cheaper and smaller hardware platforms are needed to allow the benefits such as multi-hop communication, mesh networking, and the resulting higher reliability compared to single point-to-point links. Moreover, existing networking protocols from radio frequency domain sensor networks do not work well under water because of the harsh environmental conditions as well as long propagation delays, low bandwidth, and frequency dependent attenuation. Refraction of the acoustic signal also causes shadow zones, which pose problems to reliable communication. Additionally, currently the communication between sensor nodes and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are not well supported. To this end, we aim to design ad develop an underwater node platform which has the following properties:
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