Energy-Aware Partitioned Fixed-Priority Scheduling for Chip Multiprocessors

Energy-Aware Partitioned Fixed-Priority Scheduling for Chip Multiprocessors,10.1109/RTCSA.2011.75,Arvind Kandhalu,Junsung Kim,Karthik Lakshmanan

Energy-Aware Partitioned Fixed-Priority Scheduling for Chip Multiprocessors  
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Energy management is becoming an increasingly important problem in application domains ranging from embedded devices to data centers. In many such systems, multi-core processors are projected as a promising technology to achieve improved performance with a lower power envelope. Managing the application power consumption under timing constraints poses significant challenges in these emerging platforms. In this paper, we study the energy-efficient scheduling of periodic realtime tasks with implicit deadlines on chip multi-core processors (CMPs). We specifically consider processors with a single voltage and clock frequency domain, such as the state-of-the-art embedded multi-core NVIDIA Tegra 2 processor and enterprise-class processors such as Intel’s Itanium 2, i5, i7 and IBM’s Power 6 and Power 7 series. The major contributions of this work are (i) we prove that Worst-Fit-Decreasing (WFD) task partitioning when Rate-Monotonic Scheduling (RMS) is used has an approximation ratio of 1.71 for the problem of minimizing the schedulable operating frequency with partitioned fixed-priority scheduling, (ii) we illustrate the major shortcoming of WFD with RMS resulting from not considering task periods during allocation, and (iii) we propose a Single-clock domain multi-processor Frequency Assignment Algorithm (SFAA) that determines a globally energy-efficient frequency while including task period relationships. Our evaluation results show that SFAA provides significant energy gains when compared to WFD. In fact SFAA is shown to save up to 55% more power compared to WFD for an octa-core processor.
Conference: Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications - RTCSA , vol. 1, pp. 93-102, 2011
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