High-Frequency Thermally Actuated Electromechanical Resonators With Piezoresistive Readout
This paper presents fabrication, characterization, and modeling of micro/nanoelectromechanical high-frequency res- onators actuated using thermal forces with piezoresistive readout. Thermally actuated single-crystalline silicon resonators with fre- quencies (up to 61 MHz) have been successfully demonstrated. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally that, as opposed to the general perception, thermal actuation can be a viable actuation mechanism for high-frequency resonators, and using appropriate design guidelines, this actuation mechanism could even be more suitable for higher frequency rather than lower frequency appli- cations. It has been shown through comprehensive thermoelectro- mechanical modeling that thermal-piezoresistive nanomechanical resonators with frequencies in the gigahertz range can exhibit motional conductance values as high as 1 mA/V while consuming static power as low as a few microwatts.