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Keywords
(9)
Covariance Matrices
Likelihood Function
Low Complexity
Maximum Likelihood Decoding
Space Time Code
Sphere Decoder
Line of Sight
Maximum Likelihood
Mobile Terminal
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Fast Essentially Maximum Likelihood Decoding of the Golden Code
Fast Essentially Maximum Likelihood Decoding of the Golden Code,10.1109/TIT.2011.2136870,IEEE Transactions on Information Theory,Songsri Sirinaunpiboo
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Fast Essentially Maximum Likelihood Decoding of the Golden Code
(
Citations: 10
)
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Songsri Sirinaunpiboon
,
A. Robert Calderbank
,
Stephen D. Howard
The Golden code is a fullrate fulldiversity spacetime code which has been incorporated in the IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) standard. The worst case complexity of a treebased
sphere decoder
for a square QAM constellation is , where is the size of the underlying QAM constellation; the worst case will dominate average decoding complexity on any channel with a significant
line of sight
component. In this paper, we present a simple algorithm with quadratic complexity for decoding the Golden code that can be employed by mobile terminals with either one or two receive antennas, that is resilient to near singularity of the channel matrix, and that gives essentially
maximum likelihood
(ML) performance. Dual use is an advantage, since there will likely be some IEEE 802.16 mobile terminals with one receive antenna and some with two antennas. The key to the quadratic algorithm is a maximization of the
likelihood function
with respect to one of the pair of signal points conditioned on the other. This choice is made by comparing the determinants of two covariance matrices, and the underlying geometry of the Golden code guarantees that one of these choices is good with high probability.
Journal:
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory  TIT
, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 35373541, 2011
DOI:
10.1109/TIT.2011.2136870
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Citation Context
(7)
...Note that this decoding primitive also applies to space‐time codes that are not assisted by quasiorthogonality, such as the Golden Code [10] and perfect space‐time codes to give essentially ML performance (see [
11
]and[12]), wherethe tree search implementations employed in [8] do not simplify...
...Note that this decoding primitive can be applied to certain space‐time codes that are not assisted by quasiorthogonality, such as the Golden Code and perfect space‐time codes to give essentially ML performance [
11
], [12], where the tree search employed in [8] does not collapse as above...
...The approachisindependentofimplementationandcanbeextendedto produce suboptimal decoding schemes with essentially ML performance for other space‐time codes such as the Golden Code and perfect space‐time block codes [
11
], [12]...
Songsri Sirianunpiboon
,
et al.
Fast optimal decoding of multiplexed orthogonal designs by conditional...
...The perception that ML decoding of the golden code has high complexity has had two effects: First, it has motivated a search for suboptimal decoders for the golden code with reduced complexity and nearML performance [13] [
16
]...
Mohanned O. Sinnokrot
,
et al.
Fast maximumlikelihood decoding of the golden code
...2 Recently, an essentially MLdecoding algorithm has been given to decode the Golden code with a complexity of only [
11
]...
K. Pavan Srinath
,
et al.
Low MLDecoding Complexity, Large Coding Gain, FullRate, FullDiversi...
...The approach has been applied to the Golden code to obtain essentially ML performance with complexity O(N 2 ) [
7
]...
...The approach is an extension of the ideas used to derive the fast optimal algorithm for multiplexing orthogonal design developed in [8], and applied to Golden code to obtain a fast essentially ML performance decoder [
7
]...
Stephen D. Howard
,
et al.
Low complexity essentially maximum likelihood decoding of perfect spac...
...can also be decoded optimally or nearly optimally with quadratic complexity [1], [
2
]...
...These conditions are not satisfied by the Golden code but decoding performance is still indistinguishable from that of ML decoding (see [
2
])...
Kalyana C. Bollapalli
,
et al.
Highly parallel decoding of spacetime codes on graphics processing un...
References
(10)
The golden code: a 2×2 fullrate spacetime code with nonvanishing determinants
(
Citations: 151
)
JeanClaude Belfiore
,
Ghaya Rekaya
,
Emanuele Viterbo
Journal:
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory  TIT
, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 14321436, 2005
Achieving the Full MIMO DiversityMultiplexing Frontier with RotationBased SpaceTime Codes
(
Citations: 121
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Huan Yao
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(
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(
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Lizhong Zheng
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Fullrate fulldiversity 2 �? 2 spacetime codes of reduced decoder complexity
(
Citations: 33
)
Serdar Sezginer
,
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Journal:
IEEE Communications Letters  IEEE Commun. Lett.
, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 973975, 2007
Sort by:
Citations
(10)
Fastdecodable, rateunbalanced Silver spacetime block codes for 4 × 2 MIMO
Yi Hong
,
Ezio Biglieri
Conference:
Communications Theory Workshop, Australian  AusCTW
, 2011
Fast optimal decoding of multiplexed orthogonal designs by conditional optimization
(
Citations: 11
)
Songsri Sirianunpiboon
,
Yiyue Wu
,
A. Robert Calderbank
,
Stephen D. Howard
Journal:
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory  TIT
, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 11061113, 2010
Fast maximumlikelihood decoding of the golden code
(
Citations: 7
)
Mohanned O. Sinnokrot
,
John R. Barry
Journal:
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications  TWC
, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 2631, 2010
Low MLDecoding Complexity, Large Coding Gain, FullRate, FullDiversity STBCs for 2 2 and 4 2 MIMO Systems
(
Citations: 17
)
K. Pavan Srinath
,
B. Sundar Rajan
Journal:
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing  IEEE J SEL TOP SIGNAL PROCESS
, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 916927, 2009
Low complexity essentially maximum likelihood decoding of perfect spacetime block codes
(
Citations: 5
)
Stephen D. Howard
,
S. Sirianunpiboon
,
A. Robert Calderbank
Conference:
International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing  ICASSP
, pp. 27252728, 2009