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Cross-Spectral Analysis of Midfrequency Acoustic Waves Reflected by the Seafloor

Cross-Spectral Analysis of Midfrequency Acoustic Waves Reflected by the Seafloor,10.1109/JOE.2011.2114111,IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering,Laurent

Cross-Spectral Analysis of Midfrequency Acoustic Waves Reflected by the Seafloor  
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Direct path measurements of a single-bottom inter- acting path on a vertical array are used to probe the seabed struc- ture. The phase of the cross-spectrum, commonly used in engi- neering acoustics, permits examination of the importance of sub- bottom paths. When the cross-spectral phase is linear with fre- quency it implies that source to receiver propagation is dominated by a single path. A linear cross-spectral phase would also satisfy the linear seabed reflection coefficient phase approximation some- times employed in forward modeling and geoacoustic inversion approaches. Shallow water measurements of the cross-spectrum, however,evidenceastronglynonlinearphase,belowabout1500Hz at one site, and 600 Hz at another site, implying that: 1) the sub- bottom structure plays an important role (i.e., a seabed half-space approximation would be inappropriate); and 2) the linear reflec- tion phase approximation would be violated at those frequencies.
Journal: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering - IEEE J OCEANIC ENG , vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 248-258, 2011
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