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Visualization of a Cytoskeleton-like Ftsz Network in Chloroplasts

Visualization of a Cytoskeleton-like Ftsz Network in Chloroplasts,10.1083/jcb.151.4.945,Journal of Cell Biology,Justine Kiessling,Sven Kruse,Stefan A.

Visualization of a Cytoskeleton-like Ftsz Network in Chloroplasts   (Citations: 57)
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It has been a long-standing dogma in life sci- ences that only eukaryotic organisms possess a cyto- skeleton. Recently, this belief was questioned by the finding that the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ re- sembles tubulin in sequence and structure and, thus, may be the progenitor of this major eukaryotic cyto- skeletal element. Here, we report two nuclear-encoded plant fts Z genes which are highly conserved in coding sequence and intron structure. Both their encoded pro- teins are imported into plastids and there, like in bacte- ria, they act on the division process in a dose-dependent manner. Whereas in bacteria FtsZ only transiently po- lymerizes to a ring-like structure, in chloroplasts we identified persistent, highly organized filamentous scaf- folds that are most likely involved in the maintenance of plastid integrity and in plastid division. As these net- works resemble the eukaryotic cytoskeleton in form and function, we suggest the term "plastoskeleton" for this newly described subcellular structure.
Journal: Journal of Cell Biology - J CELL BIOL , vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 945-950, 2000
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    • ...Each PpFtsZ protein has a distinct subcellular localisation, and the four PpFtsZ proteins specifically interact with each other to build higher-order structures (Kiessling et al. 2000, 2004; Gremillon et al. 2007)...
    • ...As described for PpftsZ2-1 and 2-2 (Kiessling et al. 2000; Rensing et al. 2004), high sequence identity, conservation of intron position and lengths suggest that both genes originate from a rather recent duplication event...
    • ...As these filamentous networks resemble the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, the term ‘plastoskeleton’ was coined: a novel structure to ensure chloroplast integrity (Kiessling et al. 2000; Reski 2002)...
    • ...In contrast, high FtsZ levels inhibited plastid division, leading to the accumulation of undivided macrochloroplasts (Kiessling et al. 2000; Gremillon et al. 2007)...

    A. Martinet al. A uniquely high number of fts Z genes in the moss Physcomitrella paten...

    • ...Both FtsZ2-isoforms of P. patens (PpFtsZ2-1, PpFtsZ2-2) are found as network-like structures in the plastids, suggesting that they act as components of a plastoskeleton that may ensure chloroplast shape and integrity (Kiessling et al., 2000; Reski, 2002)...
    • ...Both proteins, FtsZ2-1 and FtsZ2-2, were found in networklike structures in the chloroplast, suggesting that besides a cytoskeleton, a plastoskeleton may exist that helps to maintain plastid shape and integrity (Kiessling et al., 2000)...

    Anja Martinet al. Targeted Gene Knockouts Reveal Overlapping Functions of the Five Physc...

    • ...Suppression or overexpression of either FTSZ gene results in aberrant plastid division (Osteryoung & Vierling, 1995; Osteryoung et al, 1998; Kiessling et al, 2000; Stokes et al, 2000)...

    Yong Huet al. Chloroplast division is regulated by the circadian expression of FTSZ ...

    • ...Relatively long presequences of 90 and 119 amino acids for Arabidopsis FtsZ (Fujiwara and Yoshida 2001) and 93 amino acids for P. patens FtsZ1 were required to target plastids (Fujiwara and Yoshida 2001; Kiessling et al. 2000; Vitha et al. 2001)...

    Lucia F. Primavesiet al. Visualisation of plastids in endosperm, pollen and roots of transgenic...

    • ...A proposed function of this ‘plastoskeleton’ is the maintenance of chloroplast integrity (Kiessling et al ., 2000; McFadden, 2000; Reski, 2002)...
    • ...Construction of FtsZ1-2-GFP, FtsZ2-1-GFP and FtsZ2-2-GFP has been described previously (Kiessling et al ., 2000, 2004)...
    • ...Apart from the three FtsZ proteins described previously (Kiessling et al., 2000, 2004; Reski, 2002), P. patens possesses a fourth FtsZ which belongs to the FtsZ1 subfamily and was designated FtsZ1-1...
    • ...Like their bacterial ancestors, members of the FtsZ2 family and FtsZ1-2 have been shown to act in a dose-dependent manner on plastid division, strongly indicating their involvement in the process (Kiessling et al., 2000, 2004)...
    • ...Experimental data presented here and published previously (Kiessling et al., 2000, 2004) show that, despite their obvious functional differentiation, all four FtsZ proteins analysed are involved in the process of chloroplast division...
    • ...We have shown that FtsZ proteins are capable of self-interaction, as expected (Kiessling et al., 2000, 2004)...

    Louis Gremillonet al. Filamentous Temperature-Sensitive Z (FtsZ) Isoforms Specifically Inter...

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