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Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of the FLO Gene Family Generates Cell-Surface Variation in Yeast

Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of the FLO Gene Family Generates Cell-Surface Variation in Yeast,10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00118-7,Cell,Adrian Halme,Sta

Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of the FLO Gene Family Generates Cell-Surface Variation in Yeast   (Citations: 114)
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The FLO gene family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae includes an expressed gene, FLO11, and a set of silent, telomere-adjacent FLO genes. This gene family encodes cell-wall glycoproteins that regulate cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion. Epigenetic silencing of FLO11 regulates a key developmental switch: when FLO11 is expressed, diploid cells form pseudohyphal filaments; when FLO11 is silent, the cells grow in yeast form. The epigenetic state of FLO11 is heritable for many generations and regulated by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) Hda1p. The silent FLO10 gene is activated by high-frequency loss-of-function mutations at either IRA1 or IRA2. FLO10 is regulated by the same transcription factors that control FLO11: Sfl1p and Flo8p, but is silenced by a distinct set of HDACs: Hst1p and Hst2p. These sources of epigenetic and genetic variation explain the observed heterogeneity of cell-surface protein expression within a population of cells derived from a single clone.
Journal: Cell , vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 405-415, 2004
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    • ...are subject to position-dependent silencing regulated by histone deacetylases (...

    Nathalie Uwamahoroet al. The Functions of Mediator in Candida albicans Support a Role in Shapin...

    • ...) Same strains in 1C were examined on rich medium either containing 2% glucose (YEPD) or lacking glucose (YEP) in 0.3% agar. A representative microscopic image is shown. Bar = 10 microns. E) Vegetative mats mature into filamentous mats over time as nutrients become limiting. Two mats of wild type (PC313) strain were spotted bilaterally (1.5 cm apart) on YEPD and YEP media (+0.2% galactose) containing 0.3% agar media. The number of filaments occurring along the circumference of mats was scored on a scale of 1, 2, or 3 dots at 20× magnification corresponding to 3, 6, or 9 filaments or greater, respectively. Dots were plotted on a circle representing the outline of one of the mats with right hemispheres corresponding to the side of the mat facing a second mat. Asymmetric filamentation observed in the right hemisphere of 2d, Glu can possibly result from nutritional stress compounded by nutrient depletion from adjacent mats. Filamentation was monitored and plotted after growth for 1, 2, 3, and 4 days. Quantitation of pseudohyphae was complicated at longer time points when biofilms began to variegate ...

    Sheelarani Karunanithiet al. Regulation of Mat Responses by a Differentiation MAPK Pathway in Sacch...

    • ...epigenetic control allowing S. cerevisiae cells in a homogenous population to reversibly switch between active FLO gene expression and silent modes (Halme et al. 2004; Octavio et al. 2009)...
    • ...Not only do these factors control the level of heterogenicity of flocculation within a clonal population, but evidence exist for the combinational control of more than one FLO gene (Halme et al. 2004; Fichtner et al. 2007 ;B ester et al.2006)...

    Florian F. Baueret al. Yeast flocculation and its biotechnological relevance

    • ...In addition to genetic mechanisms, epigenetic mechanisms add another level of complexity in the control of the expression of the FLO genes and consequently, in the control of yeast flocculation (Fleming and Pennings 2001; Halme et al. 2004; Dietvorst and Brandt 2008; Dietvorst and Brandt 2009)...

    Sebastiaan E. Van Mulderset al. Flocculation gene variability in industrial brewer’s yeast strains

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