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Extratumoral Macrophages Promote Tumor and Vascular Growth in an Orthotopic Rat Prostate Tumor Model1

Extratumoral Macrophages Promote Tumor and Vascular Growth in an Orthotopic Rat Prostate Tumor Model1,Sofia Halin,Stina Häggström Rudolfsson,Nico Van

Extratumoral Macrophages Promote Tumor and Vascular Growth in an Orthotopic Rat Prostate Tumor Model1   (Citations: 10)
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Tumor-associated macrophages are involved in angiogenesis and tumor progression, but their role and specific site of action in prostate cancer remain unknown. To explore this, Dunning R-3327 AT-1 rat prostate tumor cells were injected into the prostate of syngenic and immunocompetent Copenhagen rats and analyzed at different time points for vascular proliferation and macrophage density. Endothelial proliferation increased with tumor size both in the tumor and importantly also in the extratumoral normal prostate tissue. Macrophages accumulated in the tumor and in the extratumoral normal prostate tissue and were most abundant in the invasive zone. Moreover, only extratumoral macrophages showed strong positive associations with tumor size and extratumoral vascular proliferation. Treatment with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes reduced the monocyte/macrophage infiltration and resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth. This was accompanied by a suppressed proliferation in microvessels and in the extratumoral prostate tissue also in arterioles and venules. The AT-1 tumors produced, as examined by RT2 Profiler PCR arrays, numerous factors promoting monocyte recruitment, angiogenesis, and tis- sue remodeling. Several, namely, chemokine (C-C) ligand 2, fibroblast growth factor 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9, interleukin 1β, interferon γ, and transforming growth factor β, were highly upregulated by the tumor in vivo com- pared with tumor cells in vitro, suggesting macrophages as a plausible source. In conclusion, we here show the importance of extratumoral monocytes/macrophages for prostate tumor growth, angiogenesis, and extratumoral arteriogenesis. Our findings identify tumor-associated macrophages and several chemotactic and angiogenic fac- tors as potential targets for prostate cancer therapy.
Published in 2009.
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