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Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE

Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,10.1145/166117.166134,Carolina Cruz-Neira,Daniel J. Sandin

Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE   (Citations: 1038)
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Several common systems satisfy some but not all of the VR definition above. Flight simulators provide vehicle tracking, not head tracking, and do not generally operate in binocular stereo. Omnimax theaters give a large angle of view (8), occasionally in stereo, but are not interactive. Head-tracked monitors (4)(6) provide all but a large angle of view. Head-mounted displays (HMD) (7)(13) and BOOMs (9) use motion of the actual display screens to achieve VR by our definition. Correct projection of the imagery on large screens can also create a VR experience, this being the subject of this paper. This paper describes the CAVE (CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment) virtual reality/scientific visualization system in detail and demonstrates that projection technology applied to virtual-reality goals achieves a system that matches the quality of workstation screens in terms of resolution, color, and flicker-free stereo. In addition, this format helps reduce the effect of common tracking and system latency errors. The off-axis perspective projection techniques we use are shown to be simple and straightforward. Our techniques for doing multi-screen stereo vision are enumerated, and design barriers, past and current, are described. Advantages and disadvantages of the projection paradigm are discussed, with an analysis of the effect of tracking noise and delay on the user. Successive refinement, a necessary tool for scientific visualization, is developed in the virtual reality context. The use of the CAVE as a one-to-many presentation device at SIGGRAPH '92 and Supercomputing '92 for computational science data is also mentioned. Previous work in the VR area dates back to Sutherland (12), who in 1965 wrote about the "Ultimate Display." Later in the decade at the University of Utah, Jim Clark developed a system that allowed wireframe graphics VR to be seen through a head- mounted, BOOM-type display for his dissertation. The common VR devices today are the HMD and the BOOM. Lipscomb (4) showed a monitor-based system in the IBM booth at SIGGRAPH '91 and Deering (6) demonstrated the Virtual Portal, a closet- sized three-wall projection-based system, in the Sun Microsystems' booth at SIGGRAPH '92. The CAVE, our projection-based VR display (3), also premiered at SIGGRAPH '92. The Virtual Portal and CAVE have similar intent, but different implementation schemes.
Conference: Annual Conference on Computer Graphics - SIGGRAPH , pp. 135-142, 1993
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