The immune response to resistive breathing

The immune response to resistive breathing,10.1183/09031936.04.00067904,European Respiratory Journal,T. Vassilakopoulos,C. Roussos,S. Zakynthinos

The immune response to resistive breathing   (Citations: 13)
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ABSTRACT: Resistive breathing is an "immune challenge" for the body, initiating an inflammatory response consisting of an elevation of plasma cytokines, and the recruitment,and,activation of lymphocyte,subpopulations. These cytokines,do not originate from monocytes, but are, instead, produced within the diaphragm, secondary to the increased muscle activation. Oxidative stress is a major stimulus for the cytokine induction, secondary to resistive breathing. The production of cytokines within the diaphragm,may,be mediating,the diaphragm muscle fibre injury that occurs with strenuous contractions, or contributing towards,the,expected,repair,process. These,cytokines,may,also,compromise diaphragmatic,contractility or contribute towards the development,of muscle cachexia. They may also have systemic effects, mobilising glucose from the liver and free fatty acid from,the adipose tissue to the strenuously working,respiratory muscles. At the same time, they stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to production of adrenocorticotropin and b-endorphins. The adrenocorticotropin response,may,represent an attempt,of the organism,to reduce,the,injury occurring,in the,respiratory,muscles,via,the,production,of glucocorticoids and the induction of the acute phase-response proteins. The b-endorphin response,would,decrease,the activation of the respiratory muscles,and,change,the pattern of breathing, which becomes more rapid and shallow, possibly in an attempt to reduce and/or prevent further injury to the respiratory muscles. Eur Respir J 2004; 24: 1033–1043. Dept of Critical Care and Pulmonary Services, University of Athens Medical School, Evange- lismos Hospital, Athens, Greece. Correspondence: T. Vassilakopoulos
Journal: European Respiratory Journal - EUR RESP J , vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1033-1043, 2004
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